28 Apr 2019

First molecule formed after the Big bang discovered in space rescently!

The first molecule ever formed in the Universe observed, the  Helium Hydride.


13.8 billion years ago, just after the Big bang there was  nothing like today. At that time there was nothing like black holes, galaxy, stars, planets, and even molecules. The only thing in existence was that time had energy and elements in atomic form and even not as molecules.

This all continued till 100,000 years after big bang, and there after first molecule came ever into existence in the Universe.

And that first  molecule was ever Helium hydride ion (simply called HeH+), which were made up of the lightest known elements of that time Helium and Hydrogen. This process was completed due to decrease in  the temperature of universe closure to 4000 K because of actions of ions that combine with free electrons to form neutral atom.

This Helium Hydride  also found on the Earth but in laboratory only. And this molecule also played a very important role when life on Earth was formed. But till now Helium Hydride was not found ever naturally, and this should be due to lack of  technology that we need.

But, here scientists have found it first time ever in the history of space science, the first molecule ever formed in the Universe, the  Helium Hydride.

Interestingly Helium Hydride was first seen on the earth by experiment in 1925, and since then many attempts and experiments were done to see the first ever bond formed. And on natural existence it was believed that Helium Hydride is  abundantly found in planetary nebulae, this is because of the high temperature which results to large scale ionization resulting formation of HeH+.


David Neufeld, a Co-author of the study who is a Professor in the Physics and Astronomy Department at John Hopkins University, described the discovery perfectly by saying, “The discovery of HeH+ is a dramatic and beautiful demonstration of Nature’s tendency to form molecules. Despite the unpromising ingredients that are available, a mixture of hydrogen with the unreactive noble gas helium, and a harsh environment at thousands of degrees Celsius, a fragile molecule form. Remarkably, this phenomenon can not only be observed by astronomers but also understood using theoretical models that we have developed.”


We have discovered very much mysterious things in this Universe, then why this discovery is so late? What problems were stopping the way of this discoveries?


In this case real challenge was not the absence of abounded amount of Helium Hydride molecule or technical capability, it was Earth's own atmosphere. Due,to the presence of water vapour and density of gases in Earth’s atmosphere, cut out the range of electromagnetic waves that HeH+ gives out, in the far-infrared wavelength. In short, Helium Hydride (HeH+) was undetectable from ground.

NASA joined with German aerospace centre to overcome this challenge to detect Helium Hydride with an airborne Observatory. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy ( SOFIA), could make observations from the altitude of 14,000 meters.

This high altitude Observatory gives benefit in reducing 85 percent of noise from the atmosphere that is received by ground based telescopes, and this makes advantage for SOFIA to observe this first ever formed molecule after big bang.

Astronomer Rolf Güsten mentioned that we can now put constraints on the chemical reactions that control the formation and destruction of the helium hydride molecule which will give a completely new dimension to our research. He said,“The respective rates are difficult to calculate, and in the literature have changed by a factor of 10 in recent years. Our observations will help to ‘calibrate’ these rates, and this will feed-back into the chemical ‘networks’ of the early Universe.”


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Discovery of Edwin Hubble, that had given idea about origin of Universe!

The space isn't expanding with the speed of light, see how!



In 1924, Edwin Hubble tells the whole world that our galaxy is not a single galaxy in this universe, there may be the millions and billions of galaxy in all over the universe.

For nowadays it's not so weird thing actually it's a simple and proved thing of modern day world but at that time Hubble knew that if he has to propose the idea of more than one galaxy than he has to prove that.

For proving his idea Hubble starts measuring the space or distance between two galaxies. When he starts measuring, he gets something more weird, which was "the space between two galaxies are not constant". After remeasuring, he concluded, our universe is expanding and Hubble proves that easily.

Hubble noticed that if we measure the intensity of light coming from a galaxy than that light must loosing it's intensity towards red zone. With the later results, scientists concluded that universe is expanding with more than the speed of light.

But if that's the case then what about relativity?


Actually Einstein's relatively says that if any object having it's own mass can't travel more than the speed of light, But this theory is valid for the objects which have mass and which comes under the influence of space time but this theory is not valid for space itself.

Now, Hubble's measuring is indicating towards something else. Astronomers are still trying to measure the Hubble constant but they are unable to do so. Hubble constant is the speed of expansion of universe. Now scientists are trying to mark Hubble constant but they are getting some weird results as universe is not expanding with the speed of light but it actually depends upon how scientists measure it.

Scientists know that universe is expanding with some speed that's why they are trying to find hubble constant with Verious ways. One method is based on intensity of cosmic microwave background and another method is based on lights from distant galaxies and some methods are based on supernova.

From all of these measurements, results comes out is,that universe is expanding with the 6.67 kilometres per second per megaparsec. According to this value, the rate of expansion is 6.67 kilometres per second faster in every 3.26 million light years.

What is happening , when scientists try to observe farther universe then they found the rate of expansion is much slower than the expansion of closer universe.

After all the calculations of errors, discrepancy is still there. It means scientists needs some other ways to find the exact value of hubble constant. They starts measuring the gravitational waves produced during the collision of two newtron stars.

Scientists believe that they will able to calculate hubble constant by calculating the distance to the collision using gravitational waves of collision and the speed produced by the stars in the gravitational waves during collision.

It seems that, right now we are lacking of some technology and knowledge to calculate this ultimate contant. Another interesting thing which can help scientists to calculate that value is the reason of expansion--Dark energy. The mystery of dark energy is still continuing as we know that there is 74 percent of darkness matter in our universe.


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A city sized star is blocking full view of our milky way's black hole!

Yes! a city sized star is blocking view of our milky way's black hole!


After the release of first image of black hole on April 10, 2019, one question was very common. Why we had captured image of M87* which is the black hole of another galaxy and not captured of Sagittarius A* which is from milkyway?

So ,reason behind this is very interesting. We have not captured image of Sagittarius A* because we are not receiving right angle of it, but the real cause was a city sized neutron star. Yes! A Manhattan city sized small and dense neutron star known as Magnetar blocked the view of Sagittarius A*.

In 2013, astronomers were working on project to observe supermassive black hole in the centre of Milkyway known as  Sagittarius A*. But when everything was going correct, suddenly a neutron star called Magnetar flared up and blocked the view of black hole totally. Obviously it wonders, how a such tiny star can block whole view of black hole, but that’s the truth.

“Initially, the big excitement was, ‘Holy cow, Sagittarius A* just went nuts!'” McGill astronomer Daryl Haggard told Live Science. “It would have been the brightest flare we’d ever seen from the supermassive black hole.”

While observing Sagittarius A* through X-RAY telescope, astronomers observed a big bang in black hole. At that time they had observed a gas cloud moving towards the event horizon of black hole which obviously emits energy.  As usual black hole never emits any light but, the gas clouds near the event horizon can. But, this time the observed energy on X-RAY telescope was much higher comparatively.

Then ,on 24th April, 2013 a very surprising data came to their telescope, that was sudden change was Swift, an orbital NASA telescope. Astronomers were watching the supermassive black hole, trying to pick up a little bit of a signature in the X-ray wavelengths from this interaction, and then BANG, the magnetar went off.

Over the time, the brightness of neutron star start fading off and this was the time astronomers were able to classify them as two. And that time they explained the light from the black hole and the neutron star as the two headlights of  the car.

As the time passed over more the light from the neutron star start fading more. For observers of the galactic centre, Haggard said, this sort of issue is typical. There's such a dense, bright cloud of hot material in the area, she said, that any observation requires carefully sorting out good data from junk. The magnetar has become just one more frustration for Sagittarius A* observers to deal with.


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General theory of relativity!

General theory of relativity


General theory of relativity

Albert Einstein published the general theory of relativity in 1915 for challenging newton's theory of gravitation. Einstein was one of the greatest scientists of his century. A very strange thing about Einstein was, he never proposed any theory on any experimental basis, but he only gives all his theories and hypothesis on the basis of his imagination and mathematical equations.
Einstein was lashed with a great power of visualisation.

Theory of relativity is just one of the theory proposed by Einstein but this theory changed everything. This theory changes our view to see the universe.
As we know, speed is present in the every particle of the universe but we are able to measure this speed mathematically about 300 years ago. This task was done by "Sir Issac Newton" by proposing his laws of motion.

According to Newton, any body initially at rest comes in motion if any external force applies on it. Newton also said that time is abloslute , what that means?

Well, it means time passes with equal speed at any corner of the universe, this means that time for a astronaut travelling in a space ship is equal to the time passes for a person on earth. In another case, time for a person near a black hole behaves same as time of earth, but the fact on it is not true.

Einstein was a great thinker, his visualisation power was excellent. He visualises that if a 'A' person is sitting in a train and another person 'B' is watching him then, For B, A is moving in forward direction with some velocity, but for A he and all other passengers sitting in that train are in rest. This was a great paradox for the scientists of 20th century that, which frame of reference is correct to measure the speed of A.

The conclusion comes out was, Both the references was absolutely right but the problem was speed. Einstein suggested that speed is not absolute but it is relative.

Newton also said in his classical theory of relativity, "law of physics do not very with velocity of body", but if we apply physics on A and B then results will comes out against the Newton's classical theory of relativity.

In starting of 20th century, scientists have found that there is also a thing in the nature whose speed doesn't depend on frame of reference and that is light. The speed of light is 300000 m/sec which does not vary with frame of reference. It does not matter from where we will observe light it's value will comes out to be same.

This absolute speed of light stunned Albert Einstein and he starts thinking that what will happen if we travel with the speed of light and he goes with a simple formula which says speed depends upon the product of time and distance , because speed of light is constant hence Einstein conclude that space and time must vary itself.

According to Einstein, nature will not allow anything to break it's law and it forces them to follow all the laws. Speed of light is also a fundamental property of nature hence for keeping it as a constant, nature makes some changes in space and time.

For understanding this let's take our previous example, this time A is sitting in a train whose speed is same as speed of light. They both measure time when A  starts moving and after some days A comes out from that train. He will find that his friend B is nearly 10-20 years older than before, he will found a different world or we can say, a future world. This concept of Einstein also gave birth to a fictional phenomenon "time travel".

This theory of Albert Einstein was now ready to shake the whole scientific society. Nowadays general theory of relativity is one of the most important weapon to fight and find the hidden fact of this unpredictable universe.


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21 Apr 2019

Cassini found very deep liquid lake on Saturn's moon "Titan"

Cassini found very deep liquid lake on Saturn's moon "Titan"


Titan is the biggest moon of Saturn and the second largest natural satellite in solar system. It is 1.48 times massive than the earths moon and is 1.06 that of the planet Mercury. As, its atmosphere is mainly composed of Nitrogen(97%) and rest are  methane, hydrogen and some other elements in trace amount.

Titan’s atmosphere is very dense(almost opaque), so Voyager 1 on its planetary fly-by of Titan in 1980, couldn’t take any image of Titans surface. Later in 2004, NASA's spacecraft Cassini- Huygens takes first image of Titan’s surface.

Year 2013 was very important in the history of space science because, this year Cassini spacecraft did some stunning discoveries that ever done in the history.

On 4 April, 2004, Cassini reported organic chemicals in Titan’s atmosphere. Same year on 6 June, it reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in upper atmosphere.
Later on 30 September,2013, propane was detected in the atmosphere of Titan by NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

And this was the first ever, when any chemical was detected on any planet or moon, other than the Earth. And again on October 24,2014, Cassini found methane in polar clouds of Titan.

Cassini- Huygens was a mission that was conducted to know more about Planets like Jupiter and Saturn, and has a lander for the largest moon of Saturn named Huygens and Cassini spacecraft was designed for close fly-by of Saturn and it's moon.

Cassini released Huygens on December 25, 2004, which landed on January 14, 2005 successfully. Cassini received  350 pictures of landing site but, due to failure of one of it's receiver another 350 pictures were not received.

Cassini mission was of almost 20 years, which was launched on October 15, 1997 and lasts it's mission on September 14,2017. But, before finishing it’s mission it revels something unexpected about Titan, that was presence of 300 feet(more than 100 meter) deep lake and it's composition.

This  new information reveals about methane rain and evaporation on titan. Although, Titan is only planetary body in solar system other than the Earth which have stable liquid on it's surface.

As, the hydrological cycle of Titan works similar to that of the Earth, with a major difference. Instead of water evaporating, forming cloud and rain, Titan does this all with ethane and methane.

These hydrocarbons are found in form of gas on earth and are stored in tanks by pressurizing but, on Titan these all are found in the liquid form due to very much low temperature of Titan.
 Scientists knew the presence of much larger northern seas filled with methane but, the discovery of norther lake filled with methane was really surprising.

Previously, Cassini had measured the only lake on Titan’s southern hemisphere named Ontario Lacus, with equally filled methane and ethane.

The critical data about deep lake on Titan was obtained during last fly-by of Titan on April 22, 2017.
"This was Cassini's last hurrah at Titan, and it really was a feat," Lunine said.

Cassini which arrived in Saturn’s system in 2004, explored and did mapping of about 620,000 square miles (1.6million square miles) of liquid lakes and seas of Titan, with the help of radar system which sends radio signal and receives it echo.

Next mission to the Titan is “Titan Saturn System Mission(TSSM)” which is supposed to launched by 2020 and will reach to Saturn by 2029. This mission is especially designed to study Saturn’s two moons “Titan” and “Enceladus”. And hope this mission will discover something more like Cassini did.

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what exist before nothing?

what exist before nothing?


Big bang was the event which created everything we can see, touch, feel etc. Actually that was the starting of everything, and this really meant everything space, time, sound, light, atoms, electrons, etc.

Calculated predictions says that, the event of big bang takes place 13.8 billion years before. Here are some groups who still stands against big bang theory by raising some questions on it  and some of the questions  like:

1. According to our experience we can say that, something can't come from nothing, so how big bang creates everything.

2. If space didn't exist before big bang then where that point of singularity lie,a point also need a point space.

3. We all know that any blast can't happen without random movements of small particles inside any particles, so if there was no time and space before big bang than how any type of motion is possible.

There are many more points against big bang but we are not going to discuss all of them. Big bang theory is totally surrounded by questions but still it is the most acceptable theory in scientist community because this theory answers more question than any other theory.

We don't have any other theory which can explain the start of everything as big bang.

But here one question rises, what exists before big bang?

If we try to think about this question then an answer comes out as, there was nothing before big bang even that 'what' in the question also comes in existence after big bang.

From this perspective we can say that, there was nothing before big bang. But according to Stephen hawking, big bang theory is absolutely right, as he says in one of his interview; If we rewind the remote of universe then we will able to see that everything is going to compress in a point known as singularity.

Inside this ultimate point of heat, temperature and density all of our physics's laws stop functioning.
The immortal time also comes in existence after universe start expanding hence our rewinding will not answer that from where that point of singularity comes in existence.

Same type of question was asked by St. Augustin before 1,600 years in past , what exist before God created this universe?

Augustin finds answer in Bible phrase "In the beginning" God created nothing before big bang so there was nothing before God. Augustin argued with the answer that we are not the creation of any God but the time and space creates itself simultaneously.

In 20th century Albert Einstein proved that time is not fixed but it is relative to mass by proposing his general theory of relativity. In his theory Einstein says that, body of heavy masses warps space time by decreasing the rate of time flow in nearby space.

Which means time in a satellite differ from time on earth but with a very low magnitude. Based on this theory one of the scientists of Balgium, Rev Georges Lemaitre  propose a paper in 1927 in which he says, universe comes in existence because of a blast takes place in a point of ultimate mass and density.

That was the first time when someone is talking about big bang.
Another idea say that our universe is nothing but a offspring of another universe. This theory was written by taking cosmic microwave background as a hint. But at that time, lots of questions arises on big bang but eternal inflation theory helps big bang theory by saying that universe expands with a really quiet speed just after big bang in a fraction of time which is the reason of cosmic microwave background.

Hence we can say that big bang theory is unprovoked without inflation theory. Right now we have numerous inflation theory but we believe in eternal inflation, chaotic inflation theory and some more because it provides a different idea about big bang.


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Scientists revail stunning truth about Jupiter's origin!

Scientists revail stunning truth about Jupiter's origin!


Jupiter, the biggest planet of our solar system. This planet is twice as massive as the rest of the solar system planets combined together. Due to being so massive it posses greatest gravitational force among all the planets of the solar system and due to this asteroid belt formed and that’s why it wears 60+ moons and rocky ring.

Apart from this all, this planet is very mysterious. One of its biggest mystery is about it's origin. Yes, we still don’t know clearly about it's origin. But, recently astronomers had figure out it's mysterious origin.

According to current model, this gas giant was formed in outer reach of the system and then migrate inward ending up too close to the Sun. But this model was not very much proper to accept totally. So, astronomers were still working on it to find our acceptable theory about its mysterious origin.

Recently a new research came out to have demystify Jupiters history. According to computer simulation, Jupiter was formed around four times farther out than its current position, that is just inside the Uranus' current orbit. After forming there, it took 700,000 years to reach its current position.
"This is the first time we have proof that Jupiter was formed a long way from the Sun and then migrated to it's current orbit," said Simona Pirani, an astronomer in Sweden.

This research was based on asteroids called Trojans. Trojans are the group of asteroids which share Jupiter’s orbit. It's one group orbits in front of Jupiter while other trails behind, in curve region centring planets Langerhans point. But, we should know that the front group of Trojans contains 50% more asteroids than the behind group. So, this is still remain to find out the cause of such strange imbalance.

Astronomers tested various time frame and even an outward migration pattern and find out that the scenario that results in Trojans population should be only possible if Jupiter started  it's life as planetary seed at 18 astronomical unit from the Sun, and about 4.5 billion years ago. And within 2-3 million years it started to migrate inward and it takes roughly 700,000 years to reach current position of 5.2 Astronomical unit.

As the Jupiter started it's journey to close to the sun, it start drawing Trojans more in front group than in trailing group with it's gravitational force.

As researchers said, at starting point Jupiter was made of rock that would collapse to form planetary core. And that the core of Jupiter is made up of similar chunks of rock that was found in Trojans.

Formation of Jupiter was  a mystery from starting because, a gaseous planet like Jupiter cannot form so close to the Sun due to  such intense gravity, stellar radiation including with heat, and stellar wind. These factors would prevent the gas from staying long together and to being the part of Jupiter.

Although the research done by the team is correct and the study of Trojan asteroids will be very helpful to know more about the Jupiter and specially about its core.

Most important, NASA is planning to launch a probe called Lucy to study Trojans in December 2021, so we have not to wait for a long to know about Jupiter more.

What latest image of black hole tells us?

What latest image of black hole tells us?

Finally! We have the first picture of a real black hole. After all the hard work and dedication with expending lots of money scientists were to take the picture of a supermassive black hole which is getting viral on social media. If you are an astronomy lover than you must have seen that image at least once.

Lots of questions arises with this image, mainly; how astronomers were able to take a picture of a black hole from 55 million light years?

Just think about it, how it sounds to taking a picture of any objects which didn't reflect even light. But team of 200 scientists of 20 different countries just done this challenging task. This image of black hole has been taken by event horizon telescope.

Lets know more about this telescope:


From its name we can guess that it is a special telescope which is made by scientists to capture images of black holes specially as it named on a part of black hole. It is not a big telescope at any particular place on earth but it is a combination of eight different telescope at eight different places of earth and these are ground based radio telescopes combined by international collaboration.

This event horizon telescope provide visualisation as a telescope of earth's size. Making of event horizon telescope is a result of collaboration of different countries of world to explore one of the weird object of universe.

What does the image say?


We have seen numbers of images of black holes created by artists on the basis of theories and predictions before this real one. This image is not very different from those predicted images. We can't expect any better and clear image of any object which reflects no amount of light but still the image clears lots of things. An orange colour of light shaping like a doughnut which surrounds a dark space.

One question arises in mind of many of you which is, if black holes didn't reflect any light then how scientists are able to capturing its images?

The simple answer of the question is, because of hawking's radiation.
This super massive black hole is present in the center of a galaxy named as massier 87 or M87. This black hole is nearly 55 million light years away from and carry a mass equal to 6 billion solar masses.
The image of a black hole is showing that hot plasma is revolving around a circular path due to its ominous gravity. This brighten orange and yellow colour light may be the plasma of stars and planets which are unable to escape from black hole's gravitational pull.

This image also carry a invisible theoretical boundary between light and dark part and that boundary is known as event horizon. Another crazy question in our mind may be, there is a super massive black hole in the center of our own milky way galaxy named as sagittarius A* or sagittarius a star which carry 4.3 million solar mass and distance of 25,000 light years from earth.
This distance is 2,000 times less than the distance of M87's black hole then why scientists didn’t choose this black hole for the photography of first black hole?

The answer is, the black hole of M87 is farther than sagittarius a* but this distance gets cancelled by its size in comparison with sagittarius a*. This black hole of M87 is one of the biggest black hole discovered ever.

After studying this first black hole image, we can say that the idea of Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking about Black holes are nearly same from current discoveries. This image will help us a lot to study the most weird object of universe and scientists are trying to increase the quality of the image which will help even more.

14 Apr 2019

"J0815+4729" the first star to be born in the Milkyway founded recently!

"J0815+4729" the first star in Milkyway!


Stars are only the source of life and energy of the Universe, because without light we can’t think about possibility of life and also stars are the only source of light in this universe.

As we know more than trillions of stars are present in the Universe and if we see place of our solar system then, it seems to be nothing. If we remove our sun from the Universe then nothing will seen to be changed, that’s the reality of our existence.

In this big universe all stars are not the same, they are of very different types. They should be different on the basis of their age, metal concentration, rate of reaction, energy usage, and many more such categories, on which they should be differ from each other. But, here we are going to know about one of the oldest star of our Milkyway that we found.

But here is a question, only it's age makes it different or it gives us another knowledge to know more about this mysterious Universe?

So, being too old makes it too intresting and apart from it could reveal knowledge about beginning of the Universe So, find  out in detail.

Astronomers found a star which is present 7,500 light years away from the sun using spectra obtained with OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low-intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) on the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory.

This star is named to be J0815+4729. This star is not as a ordinary one, most interesting fact about J0815+4729 is it's age because it is found among  one of the oldest star  in our Milkyway galaxy.

With using Spectroscopy astronomers decomposes the light of celestial bodies to study about their chemical and physical properties. The study on J0815+4729 reveals that, it has only one-millionth of calcium and iron that sun contains but it has comparatively high amount of carbon, almost 15 percent of total solar abundance.

J0815+4729 is present in Lynx constellation and still on the main sequence of the constellation. Star is 0.7 of the weight of the sun whereas its surface temperature is 400 degrees hotter.

Study of this star could give the knowledge about the first chemicals and elements formed in the galaxy. It requires high resolution Spectroscopy on large telescope to find out chemical composition of this star, and through this we will understand first supernova and it's progenitors in better way.

Theories predict that these stars could use materials from first supernova whose progenitors were first massive stars in this galaxy and were formed only 300 million years after the Big Bang. “ In spite to the age of J0815+4729 and it's distance from us we can still study it” says Jonay González Hernández.

Actually, this star was first identified from the SDASS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) database, and it was later observed with the ISIS intermediate dispersion spectrograph on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) of the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, which is also at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory.

In the near future, the HORS high-resolution Spectroscopy, which is in trail phase currently on GTC will be the key instrument to analyse the chemical composition of weak stars like J0815+4729. Scientists are working on the high resolution and wide spectral Spectroscopy to analyse the very far present stars with special characters like J0815+4729.

Parker solar probe is going to crash into the sun!

Parker probe is going to crash into the sun!


Our sun is a giant sphere of hot plasma and gasses. Sun is responsible for life on earth by providing energy on earth in form of light and radiation. Sun is the only and main sequence stars of our solar system with the diameter of 1.39 million km /846, 000 miles which is 330,000 time's the diameter of earth.

Sun is composed of mainly hydrogen and helium and minor amounts of oxygen, carbon, neon and some more. Sun produces its energy by the process of nuclear fusion inside it's core by converting the atoms of hydrogen into helium. Currently, sun is producing 4 billion tons of matter into energy which takes 10,000 to 170,000 years to reach the surface of sun.

These types of interesting fact about the sun increases our curiosity to know more about our star. The study of sun and its chemical composition is really a challenging task for the scientists but scientists  accept that challenges and make some probes to study the chemical composition and nature of sun. Parker probe is one of them.

Parker probe well known as parker solar probe or solar probe+ is a humanless robotic aircraft launched by NASA in 2018 which becomes first object to reach so close to the sun which is 24 million km. This probe was launched to understand the puzzled phenomena of the sun. This probe will reach it's closest approach to the sun in 2025 with the speed of 690,000.

This probe was made and designed by John hopins with the cost of 1.5 billion US$. This solar space probe was launched on 12 August 2018 and right now this is the closest man-made object near sun. The space probe was named as the name of Eugene parker who was a physicists at university of Chicago.

Until now parker is able to protect it's instruments from the fiery radiation of the sun and also successfully reflect most if sun’s radiation. Scientists are expecting that this probe will answer one of the most important question related to sun, why coronal part of sun is 300 times more hotter than its surface? Another unanswered question about the sun is, how the sun is able to produce such an enormous amount of energy in form of solar fares.

Yes, sun is the only source of energy for organisms of earth hence we are very-very lucky to have a star like sun. But this is only one phase of coin, on other phase, sun releases tremendous amount of heat and radiation in space which has sufficiency to destroy any kind of life on earth. But here are some shield provided to the earth by nature like, ozone layer, earth’s magnetic field and its atmosphere. These radiations released by sun have the reason that there was no prove or spaceships before parker to go so ,close to the sun.

NASA scientists didn’t have any idea about, what parker have to face near sun so they add a carbon-composite shell of 4.5 inches to in the parker solar probe which will provide it some security to some known dangers. Another important task of parker solar probe is, to study the structure and dynamics of magnetic fields of solar winds.

In real, we can’t exact any good conditions of any space probe near the sun but shocking fact is, parker solar probe is working better than it was expected. We can only hope that this space probe will alive for few more years and reveals some of the unexpected facts about sun.

7 Apr 2019

Does the Jupiter really protect us from destroying?

Does the Jupiter really protect us from destroying?

Does the Jupiter really protect us from destroying?

Jupiter is the biggest planet of our solar system with having 11 times bigger radius and 513 times more heavier than the earth.  Whatever it's weight is but it’s density is not more than the Earth that is 1.326 g/cm3 and that of Earth is 5.514 g/cm3. Jupiter has such a low density due to being a gas giant. Yes, there is nothing like land is on this giant planet
.
As we know, the gravity of the Earth is 9.8 m/s2 and this value is known as “g”  and Jupiter experiences the gravitational of 24.79 m/s2 which is equivalent to 2.528 g With, having such a gravitational force Jupiter wears a ring of more than 60 moons and not only holding the ring of moons it also holds the  Asteroid belt that presents between Jupiter and Mars.

Looking at its composition, its atmosphere is mainly composed of Hydrogen 90% Helium 10%. Trace amount of ammonia, methane, water vapour, silicon based compounds, carbon, ethane, oxygen as well as well as benzene and other hydrocarbons are also present.

Core of Jupiter is believed to solid and to be mixture of elements. But, mainly it is composed of Hydrogen 71% , Helium 24%, and 5% of other elements. It's surface temperature is calculated to be 340k (67℃) and its pressure is measured to be 10 bars. The place where Hydrogen turns to be metallic it's temperature turns to be 10,000k and pressure turns to 200 GPa. As it's core is believed to be solid, it posses temperature of 36,000k and pressure of 3,000-4,500 GPa.

As the Jupiter posses such a massive gravitational force, this gives the Jupiter, power to hold the small floating rocks in its gravitational orbit and not let these rocks be pulled by the gravitational force of the sun, and to enter in the inner solar system.

Over the time passes its gravitational force stops mare and more objects near them and this lead to create the ring of rocks around the Jupiter and the objects like that comes with great velocity that going towards the Sun remains in the middle of Jupiter and mars and form Asteroid belt.

Now the question is, does we are protected  by Jupiter?
Well, this question should be answered by theoretical knowledge or the real observations. Here, we will answer this by both the ways.

So, lets see what the theoretical knowledge says about this question. Here we know the fact that Jupiter is very massive as compare to the Earth, and this is because it posses  such a gravitational force.

But, here a question arises about the gravitational force of sun, that how does Jupiter can opposes the gravitational pull of the sun?

So, this is because of the distance of the sun to that of the Asteroid belt is huge as compare to that of the Sun, and we know the force is inversely proportional to the square of distance. And that's why Sun can not apply such a force greater than the Jupiter so that Asteroid can come towards the Sun and remains in its place.

Now it's time to know with observations and calculated knowledge. By this knowledge we will know does Jupiter wholly protect us or not. So, as per observations we will know that Jupiter does not protect us wholly some time some asteroids makes it possible to escape from the asteroid belt. And this results in hitting inner planets or their moons.

Also some asteroids pulled more towards the Jupiter and hits it, this causes a deep hole in Jupiter surface that can be seen in  Jupiter’s surface. Not only on Jupiter this happens also with the planets and moons of inner solar system like Mars and also on our moon.

Black marks that we see on moons surface is the result of these asteroid bombarding and also could be seen on surface of Mars. Not only these but the asteroid that destroyed the whole dynasty of dinosaur was also result of the asteroid bombarding.

Now, the question is does Jupiter protects us or can destroy us?
So, here we can observe that there are just few asteroids inter into inner solar system whereas most of them are being stopped by Jupiter. Also this question can be solved by questioning other one that is,  what would happened if there were no Jupiter present. Here just one answer of this question could be given that is, in that situation all asteroids of asteroid belt were hitting inner planets and their moons. And in that case we can’t imagine any presence of life even there should not be any planet present after this regular bombarding.

So, the conclusion is that Jupiter is like a boon for us and inner solar system as it protects us and it should be the reason for our existence.

J0023+0307, a stars which shouldn't exist according to physics!

J0023+0307, a stars which shouldn't exist

J0023+0307, a stars which shouldn't exist

Once again, we found an object in this universe which is challenging our knowledge about this universe. This object is nothing but just a dwarf star but this dwarf star is not so simple as word just. Name of this star is J0023+0307. This star  comes under the criteria of metal poor dwarf star which is really very old and this is a common thing in metal poor stars.

 Today we categories this star under ‘Extremely metal-poor stars’ (EPMOs). These stars can help us to understand the physical and chemical nature of the some of first stars in the universe. This ancient dwarf  star is detected in halo of our milky way galaxy with the distance of more than 7000 light years from us.

Now the question is, what makes J0023+0307 so interesting? Answer is, researchers are unable to find any sign of carbon in this star which make this one of the weird stars ever found. This is not the only weird fact of this star, but another unexpected fact about this star is, it contains lots of lithium, more than any normal star.

Astronomers said that, this star just formed after 300 million years from big bang and just after the death of stars of first generation in the universe. An astronomer from Cambridge University, David aguado said that, the age and high lithium content of this star is interlinked between each other. We can understand this as, when universe was very young the only very light elements were formed like hydrogen and helium and some amount of lithium and beryllium.
According to a hypothesis, these elements are formed by the process of big bang nucleosynthesis.
According to this hypothesis, all the fundamental particles like electrons, protons, neutrons are formed after a explosion from in  singularity and that explosion is termed as big bang.

Later, these fundamental particles create elements which are responsible for giving this universe a perfect shape. By this theory we can guess the age of any star by studying its chemical composition as if any star is formed with heavier elements then it must be a young star as compare to the star formed of lighter elements.

We have discovered 5 to 6 metal-poor stars and J0023+0307  greatest than all in the group. In normal or regular stars 2.5 million kelvin temperature is required for proper nuclear fusion process and at this temperature lithium of the star destroyed.

 In this case, larger stars regain lithium in its outer atmosphere but in case of small stars, they don’t have any lithium. The reason behind the availability of lithium in metal-poor stars is their low light as compare to heavier stars. These stars didn’t get burn out their lithium content which they gain from big bang hence they have abundance of lithium.

These type of stars are pretty helpful for us to understand the process of big bang nucleosynthesis and J0023+0307 also tells that, we are still lacking of knowledge about some processes in universe because these theories and hypothesis didn’t satisfy the reason of existence of such kind of stars like J0023+0307.