23 Sep 2019

Scientists are trying to measure "Ghost particles"|

How it sounds that 'scientists are trying to measure the ghost'?
But yes they are taking help of cosmos to measure the actual mass of ghost particle also known as "Neutrino".

A neutrino is a Fermion that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity. The neutrino is so named because it is electrically neutral and because its rest mass is so small that it was long thought to be zero. The mass of the neutrino is much smaller than that of the other known elementary particles.

Here we are going to discuss that how a team of scientists, for the first time have set an upper limit on the mass of the lightest of the three different types of neutrino. Those are sometimes called “ghost particles” because they’re so difficult to detect.

 Scientists with the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment, or KATRIN, said  they’ll be taking measurements “well into the next decade” and hope to produce “high-impact results.

Weak interactions create neutrinos in one of three leptonic flavors: electron neutrinos νe), muon neutrinos (νμ), or tau neutrinos (vτ), in association with the corresponding charged lepton.

Although neutrinos were long believed to be massless, it is now known that there are three discrete neutrino masses with different tiny values, but they do not correspond uniquely to the three flavors. A neutrino created with a specific flavor has an associated specific quantum superposition of all three mass states.
Neutrinos are created by various radioactive decays, including the following:

* In beta decay of atomic nuclei or hadrons,
* In natural nuclear reactions such as those that take place in the core of a star,
* Artificial nuclear reactions in nuclear reactors, nuclear bombs, or particle accelerator,
* During a supernova,
* In the spin-down of a neutron star,
* when accelerated particle beams or cosmic rays strike atoms,.

The majority of neutrinos detected in the vicinity of the Earth are from nuclear reactions in the Sun.

As neutrinos are abundant but tiny and elusive, we needed every piece of knowledge available to calculate their mass, and our method could be applied to other big questions puzzling cosmologists and particle physicists alike."

Calculating mass of neutrino takes more than half a million computing hours to process the data; this is equivalent to almost 60 years on a single processor," said cosmologist Andrei Cuceu from University College London.

But Grace did it: the supercomputer returned a mass for the lightest of the three neutrons of 0.086 electron volts (with a lower limit of zero), or around 1.5 × 10-37 kilograms.

The team also calculated a combined mass for the three neutrinos - 0.26 electron volts. Both these results have a confidence interval of 95 percent.

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