23 Sep 2019

What different theories say on concept of "Multiverse"?

Universe is huge right?

In fact it is so huge that we are not able to measure its whole size as we have been only able to see a limited part of universe known as observable universe. This observable universe contains billions of galaxies, stars and other heavenly bodies.

Now the question rises is, is this universe is endless? Is there is anything exist in outside the universe? And we have only a single answer of this question "The multiverse".

Multiverse is a hypothetical concept according to which "there are multiple universes in existence".

In 1952, Erwin Schrodinger in his lecture in Dublin warned his audience because he thinks, what he is going to say is a type of joke for most of his audience. He said that when his equations seemed to describe several different histories, these were "not alternatives, but all really happen simultaneously".

Hence form there the  birth of concept of multiverse takes place.
We have seen that the movies and comics are using this concept very widely as they give different name for multiverse like multiple dimensions, parallel universe, parallel reality, alternative timeline and many more.

But physics community is totally divided on this topic. Some says multiverse must exist and some says it is just a hypothetical concept.
Scientist community don't take multiverse as a topic for debate or research.

But this doesn't mean that scientists never try to find any evidence for multiverse. In 2010, scientist named as Stephen M Feeney analysed the data collected by Wilkinson microwave Anisotropy probe (WMAP) and regarding to that data he claimed to find the evidence of collision of our universe with other in distant past.

After this, when the plank satellite take part in this discovery and didn't found such collision as it does not detect any gravitational pull on our universe due to any other universe.

Max Tegmark ( a cosmologist) has provided a taxonomy of universes beyond the familiar observable universe. The four levels of Tegmark's classification are arranged such that subsequent levels can be understood to encompass and expand upon previous levels. They are briefly described below.

Level 1. The existence of our universe

This is based on predictions of chaotic inflation according to which the existence of an infinite ergodic universe, which, being infinite, must contain Hubble volumes realizing all initial conditions.

According to chaotic inflation theory, the space ( Multiverse) is expanding and most interesting thing is this expansion will continue forever.

But here are some areas in the universe which stop expanding due to some reasons and form some bubbles and these are named as embryonic universe.

There is no limitations about the shape and size of these bubbles. The main thing is, the shape of these bubbles will decide the physical constant of that particular universe but the laws of physics will remain same in each and every bubbles.

Level 2. Oscillatory and Fecund universe

A cyclic model (or oscillating model) is any of several cosmological models in which the universe follows infinite, or indefinite, self-sustaining cycles.

Forexample, the oscillating universe theory briefly considered by Albert Einstein in 1930 theorized a universe following an eternal series of oscillations, each beginning with a Big Bang and ending with a Big Crunch; in the interim, the universe would expand for a period of time before the gravitational attraction of matter causes it to collapse back in and undergo a bounce.

Level 3. Many world interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Here, we can't predict about any result as every event is taking place in some universe. According to the MWI, each of these possible observations corresponds to a different universe.

For understanding this, if we throw a dice in air and trying to find the different probabilities then accordingly quantum mechanics, each and every number can come but in different universes. This means, if we get 1 then other five possibilities are going to take place in different universes.

Level 4. Ultimate ensemble

This is Tegmark's own hypothesis also known as ultimate mathematical universe hypothesis.
This level considers all universes to be equally real which can be described by different mathematical structures.

We can say that in this level of multiverse everything is possible means, what we are thinking write now is happening somewhere in some kind of universe which means our each new thought is creating a new universe.

Now after discussing about these levels, you may feel very awkward to read about the theories which says our universe is empty at any place form where we can escape out from our universe and in same way enter in other universes. This theory also explains us about more than 4 dimensions ( at least 10).

But we should not forget that all these are just  ideas, theories or mathematical solutions and it will take centuries to reach at some destination. Hence we can conclude only one thing "multiverse is not a topic for debate as we can take it as a reality so we will find something".

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