28 Oct 2019

NASA found organic material on Saturn's moon Enceladus!


On the basis of images and data collected by NASA's Cassini mission, scientists from USA and Germany proposed a paper, in which they proposed that Saturn's moon Enceladus have same organic molecules and which were responsible for life on earth.

In search for life in this universe, now a moon of Saturn named as Enceladus attracted the attention of scientists towards itself. For searching life, scientists tries to detect the same  molecules which were present on earth when life starts originating here.

Enceladus is the sixth largest moon of Saturn of diameter of 500 km which is actually ten times smaller than Titan which is the largest moon of Saturn. Enceladus is the most reflective heavenly body in our solar system due to the clean ice present over it's surface.

NASA has collected some data with the help of image collected by Cassini spacecraft which ends on September 15, 2017. On the basis of this data, scientists of USA and Germany has confirmed that they have detected some kind of organic molecules which can play a role of precursor molecule of life.

The elements were found to be nitrogen- and oxygen-bearing organic compounds and they are quite abundant in Enceladus.

The shocking fact is, new molecules are nothing but the ingredients of amino acids whose capability is known to everyone.
The research paper, published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, says that they could be the ideal precursors for the synthesis of 'biologically relevant organic compounds in the warm depths of Enceladus' ocean'.

The similar components are part of the chemical reactions on earth which produces amino acids, the building blocks of life. The materials ejected form core of Enceladus after mixing with it's subsurface water and released in space in form of ice grains and water vapour.

Scientists are predicting that these hydrothermal vents on the ocean surface leads to provide the energy which fuels chemical reaction. This supply of energy leads to formation on amino acids.

"If the conditions are right, these molecules coming from the deep ocean of Enceladus could be on the same reaction pathway as we see here on Earth. We don't yet know if amino acids are needed for life beyond Earth, but finding the molecules that form amino acids is an important piece of the puzzle," said Nozair Khawaja, who led the research team of the Free University of Berlin.

Actually scientists has detected the organic material in the ice grains releases by Enceladus and they are using CDA's mass spectrometer measurement to determine the composition of organic material in the grains.

These organic molecules are firstly dissolved in the ocean of Enceladus from where they get evaporated and starts floating in the space and NASA’s Cassini has that CDA's mass spectrometer which detect those organic molecules just before condensing into ice form.

This discovery clearly proves that enceladus have a reactive ocean where there a great probability of finding of any other type of life relevant compounds or molecules or even there is a chance that we will able to detect some kind of microbial life on enceladus.

There are many probability related to microbial life or organic molecules but from above discovery, it is clear that enceladus is one of those celestial bodies near us where life may be originating.


9 Oct 2019

Water reservoir contains 140 trillion times of earth's water is discovered by scientists near a quasar!


Today a huge part of society believes that "there is no life outside the earth". For supporting there views they raise a point that water is one of the most important component for life and there is no water in liquid state on any other heavenly body in universe.

The fact is, scientists have already discovered a waterworld which made up of only water which is in liquid. Now, two teams of astronomers have discovered the largest water reservoir ever detected in the universe.

This water reservoir is not only the largest one but is also the farthest reservoir of water ever found. This water surrounds a feeding black hole which is also known as quasar, present at 12 billion light years away from earth.

The amount of this water in this reservoir is 140 trillion times all the water present in earth's ocean.

According to Matt Broadford a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif, "The environment around this quasar is very unique in that it's producing this huge mass of water". Matt Broadford leads one of the two teams which discover this water reservoir.

Also read:-

•Einstein vs Newton on Gravity!

•WARP DRIVE, a technology to travel faster than the light!

What happens if you falls into a Black Hole?

Lets know about Quasars:

Quasar is a extremely luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN), in which a supermassive black hole with mass ranging from millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun is surrounded by a gaseous accretion disk.

With time, the gasses attracted by the gravitational pull black hole and it is emitted out in the form of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is enormous in amount and can be observed in electromagnetic spectrum.

It is now known that quasars are distant but extremely luminous objects, so any light which reaches the Earth is redshifted due to the metric expansion of space. Quasars are believed—and in many cases confirmed—to be powered by accretion of material into supermassive black holes in the nuclei of distant galaxies, as suggested in 1964 by Edwin Salpeter and Yakov Zel'dovich.

Light and other radiation cannot escape from within the event horizon of a black hole, but the energy produced by a quasar is generated outside the black hole, by gravitational stresses and immense friction within the material nearest to the black hole, as it orbits and falls inward.

The brightest quasar in the sky is 3C273 in the constellation of Virgo. It has an average apparent magnitude of 12.8 (bright enough to be seen through a medium-size amateur telescope), but it has an absolute magnitude of −26.7.

Both groups of astronomers studied a particular quasar called APM 08279+5255, which harbours a black hole 20 billion times more massive than the sun and produces as much energy as a thousand trillion suns.


Astronomers expected water vapour to be present even in the early, distant universe, but had not detected it this far away before. There's water vapour in the Milky Way, although the total amount is 4,000 times less than in the quasar, because most of the Milky Way’s water is frozen in ice.

Also read:-

•what exist before nothing?

•What is dark matter and dark energy?

The String Theory!

Water vapour is a important proof to reveal the facts about these strange body (quasar). In case of this quasar, water vapour surrounds the outline area of black hole which exists some hundred light years.

Presence of this water vapour indicates, this quasar is wetting the gas in X-rays and infrared radiation, and that the gas is unusually warm and dense by astronomical standards.

Although the gas is at a chilly minus 63 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 53 degrees Celsius) and is 300 trillion times less dense than Earth's atmosphere, it's still five times hotter and 10 to 100 times denser than what's typical in galaxies like the Milky Way.

Astronomers measures the gasses like carbon monoxide and water vapour around this quasar and they conclude that "there enough gas is present to feed that hungry black hole until it grows six times of its present size".

According to them they can't predict that when it is going to happen but there is a chance for some gasses to condense and form a star or another phenomenon can takes place in which some of the gasses may ejected out from quasar.