19 Aug 2019

If Aliens are flashing laser beams at us, we now have a way to detect them

If Aliens are flashing laser beams at us, we now have a way to detect them


Researchers are giving their lot of time to search advanced civilisation on planets other than the earth. They are spending lots of economical and technological resources.

But why they are doing so? Do aliens really exist and if then where they are?

Lot of questions like these arises in our mind but we don't have any answer of them. Researchers are just trying to find the answer of these questions. But here another question arises, if aliens really exist then why they are not trying to find us? Are they not interested in us?

May be or may be they are trying to find us or get our attention but we are not able to understand their signals. The extra-terrestrials could be using some other methods to get our attention or to communicate with us.

We know this fact very well that there is no life exists on our nearby planets hence if alien planet is very far from us then they have use any fast way to communicate. Light is the fastest to travel in the universe so it is possible that they are using some kind of laser beams of rays to get our attention.

Breakthrough listen, the most popular Search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) has announced that they will start looking for new signs of alien technology with the help of Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS).

According to Yuri Milner, particle physicists and founder of Breakthrough listen, When it comes to intelligent life beyond Earth, we don't know where it exists or how it communicates. "So our philosophy is to look in as many places, and in as many ways, as we can. VERITAS expands our range of observation even further."

Also read:-

•what exist before nothing?

•What is dark matter and dark energy?

The String Theory!

By using VERITAS, astronomers can even detect the nanosecond flashes of light coming from any far star in night sky. By doing this astronomers can outshine any nearby star and could indicate a method of alien communication.

After setting up VERITAS we will move towards a new section of sensitive signals like fast optical pulses.

Andrew Siemion, the director of Berkeley's SETI Research Centre, said in the statement. "Optical communication has already been used by NASA to transmit high-definition images to Earth from the moon, so there's a reason to believe that an advanced civilization might use a scaled-up version of this technology for interstellar communication."

VERITAS has looked for such laser pulses from the mysteriously dimming Tabby's Star after some had speculated there could be an alien. Breakthrough listen targeted for 1 million stars which are 10 to 100 times closer to earth in comparison with tabby's star hence we can detect them even easier.

The array of four 12-meter optical telescopes is traditionally used to detect gamma rays — high-energy radiation emitted by extreme cosmic objects like exploding stars and even black holes — in the night sky.

Also read:-

•Einstein vs Newton on Gravity!

•WARP DRIVE, a technology to travel faster than the light!

What happens if you falls into a Black Hole?

When gamma rays hit Earth's atmosphere, they produce very faint blue flashes of light called Cherenkov radiation, because the particles travel faster than the speed of light through air. So the blue flashes are the light equivalent of a sonic boom.

The telescope array's ability to detect and pinpoint the source of these short-lived blue flashes made it the perfect candidate to search for laser beams from distant stars and galaxies.

It is going to be impressive to see the future discoveries of VERITAS because they are going to related with aliens and extra-terrestrial communication.


Scientists have found the only star that escaped supermassive black hole

Scientists have found the only star that escaped supermassive black hole


Black holes form when a star totally consume its fuel of nuclear fusion and unable to fuse further then the balance between its mass and gravitational force disturbed hence star starts collapsing until it convert into a single point of infinite mass and density.

When black hole totally convert into a single point then that point is termed as point of singularity which posses intimate hence it make a big and deep curve in space time which is deeper than curve made by any other object and that point and curve is simultaneously termed as black hole.

Because of such pit like curve, all the  objects are attracted towards that black hole, a hypothetical region around black hole from where no object can escape is known as event horizon. Once if light entered in event horizon then it also can’t escape from its gravitational pull.

Scientists have discovered a only object in space that managed to escape the gravitational force of a massive black hole. This case is unique and rare because the gravitational pull of the black hole is supposed to be so strong that nothing can escape it, not even light.

Scientists have successfully traced a star named S5-HVS1, which was kicked out of Sagittarius A*, which is a super massive black hole located at the centre of Milkyway galaxy.

The star is moving  from the centre of the galaxy at an astounding speed of around 1700 kilometres per second. This speed indicates that the star got kicked out of the galactic centre about 4.8 million years ago.

Read more:-

•What latest image of black hole tells us?

•What happens if you falls into a Black Hole?

•Black hole can be formed without Stars, resent study suggests!

According to a research paper titled ‘The Great Escape: Discovery of a nearby 1700 km/s star ejected from the Milky Way by Sagittarius A*‘, the star has already spent around 4.8 million years on a lonely journey in the space after it was kicked away from the Sagittarius A* black hole.

“When integrated backwards in time, the orbit of the star points unambiguously to the Galactic Centre, implying that S5-HVS1 was kicked away from Sagittarius A* with a velocity of ∼ 1800 km/s,” the researchers wrote in the paper.

Discovery of star S5-HVS1 was done under the project called the Southern Stellar Stream Spectroscopic Survey under which they were able to find more about composition, temperature, age and velocity of the star.

The scientists said their data proved the runaway star ‘can be unambiguously traced back to the Galactic Centre’. In a previous report, NASA says that the Sagittarius A* black hole is just 26,000 light-years away from Earth, and it is one of the very few black holes in the universe where we can witness the flow of matter nearby.

S5-HVS1 is an A-type star that’s around 2.35 times the mass of the sun and is roughly 29,000 light-years away .

However, S5-HVS1 is the first hyper-velocity star in space that is able to provide constraints surrounding the geometry and kinematics of the Galaxy, including the Solar motion.

The S5-HVS1 ejection velocity being almost twice the velocity of other hyper-velocity stars previously associated with the Galactic Centre, we question whether they have been generated by the same mechanism or whether the ejection velocity distribution has been constant over time.

Also read:-

•Einstein vs Newton on Gravity!

•WARP DRIVE, a technology to travel faster than the light!

What happens if you falls into a Black Hole?

Scientists are currently studying the possibilities that might have led to the star thrown out of the galactic centre.

One such hypothesis is that an intermediate black hole in the galactic centre merged with Sagittarius A* a few million years ago where the dynamical friction at the last stages of its in spiral kicked these stars out.

This can be further investigated by searching for more hypervelocity stars that got ejected at the same time as S5-HVS1.

Further observations of the star will allow us to measure the star's 3D position and velocity with greater accuracy, and hence better model its orbit; this will allow us to precisely pin point the star's origin.


12 Aug 2019

Super massive black hole ‘V616 Monocerotis’ coming very close to Earth. Will Earth survive?

Super massive black hole ‘V616 Monocerotis’ coming very close to Earth. Will Earth survive?

Super massive black hole ‘V616 Monocerotis’ coming very close to Earth. Will Earth survive?

Black holes, it is an object in space-time exhibiting gravitational acceleration so strong that nothing—no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from it. In the space, black holes are one of the most complex entities.

Black holes form when a star totally consume its fuel of nuclear fusion and unable to fuse further then the balance between its mass and gravitational force disturbed hence star starts collapsing until it convert into a single point of infinite mass and density.

When black hole totally convert into a single point then that point is termed as point of singularity

which posses intimate hence it make a big and deep curve in space time which is deeper than curve made by any other object and that point and curve is simultaneously termed as black hole.

Because of such pit like curve, all the  objects are attracted towards that black hole, a hypothetical region around black hole from where no object can escape is known as event horizon.  

Read more:-

•What latest image of black hole tells us?

•What happens if you falls into a Black Hole?

•Black hole can be formed without Stars, resent study suggests!


Once if light entered in event horizon then it also can’t escape from its gravitational pull.

Another reason you don't want to close to a black hole is because of something called “spaghettification”.

Imagine an object in space, like a star gets closer to a black hole, the its one side will get pulled harder than the other. That's because one side of the star will be closer to the black hole than the other.

The pull from gravity will be stronger on the side closest to the black hole and weaker on the side that' further away.

This difference in the pull of gravity which is called as “tidal force” would cause the star to get pulled apart.  Its similar like pulling a lump of pasta dough into spaghetti.

Sometimes astronomers have observed this happening in the other galaxies. The technical name of this phenomenon is “tidal disruption event” but it just means that a star got too close to a black hole and got sucked into it.

In fact, are more than thousand of black holes are presents in a galaxy, which simply form after a star uses its all the energy and collapse into it in a very small point.

Also read:-

•Total mars Missions did by humans till now!

•NASA recently found big source of water on mars!

•yes! NASA discovered life on Mars recently

Although, these all black holes are present very far from us. But, recently a black hole is sported that is moving towards the earth.
Now, the question is what if Earth gets trapped in a black hole? What will happen to humans? May be humans will extinct and also the Earth will come to its end.

So, as explained above that nothing can escape the gravitational force of the black hole that means Earth will also get sucked by the black hole and the human civilization will get extinct.

But not to worry about, because there is not any black hole close enough to Earth that can affect us directly.

The closest black hole to the Earth is named ‘V616 Monocerotis’. It is also known as A0620-00. This black hole is 6.6 times more massive than our Sun.

If our planet Earth gets within about 800,000 kilometres (3.7 light seconds) of this supermassive black hole it will get pulled apart.

But that’s unlikely to happen and certainly not in your lifetime as V616 Monocerotis is about 3,300 light years away and that’s very, very far away.

Dark Matter may have existed before the Big Bang, new research suggests|

Dark Matter may have existed before the Big Bang

Dark matter

According to the Big Bang theory, 13.8 billion years ago everything was concentrated in a single point and the size of the point was less then an atom and that was know point of singularity. 

And because of such a dense mass and energy that point was totally unstable and such instability results in explosion that what we called Big Bang today. And this explosion created the Universe, and every thing that we see today.

Also read: What is Dark matter?

At that time nothing exists and it means, no space, no time and nothing, only singularity exist. That is what we called everything form nothing.

Resent study, published in the journal Physical Review Letters, presents a new idea of how dark matter was present even before the Big Bang.

“The study revealed a new connection between particle physics and astronomy,” said Tommi Tenkanen, a postdoctoral fellow at the Johns Hopkins University in the US.

“If dark matter consists of new particles that were born before the Big Bang, they affect the way galaxies are distributed in the sky in a unique way.

•what exist before nothing?
•What is dark matter and dark energy?
The String Theory!



“This connection may be used to reveal their identity and make conclusions about the times before the Big Bang too,” said Tenkanen.

Basically, Dark matter is what we don’t know about them much and we don't observe it yet, even after the research of more than of two decades.

But we know they exists because we know how much it affects the universe's expansion and we also know how much it is.
Dark energy is roughly 68% and dark matter is 27% while normal matter is just 5% in this universe.

As much we tries to solve it’s mystery, it becomes more mysterious. We have found a galaxy named "Dragonfly 44" that consists of 99.9% of dark matter only and the real matter only 0.01%.

New study suggests that, if dark matter came first, it also means that scientists will have to dramatically alter how they hunt for the substance in the universe.

Using a simple mathematical framework, researchers have shown that dark matter could have been produced well before the Big Bang, during a phase known as the “Cosmic Inflation”.

Also read:-

•Einstein vs Newton on Gravity!

•WARP DRIVE, a technology to travel faster than the light!

What happens if you falls into a Black Hole?


This is the phase when space was expanding very rapidly. This lead to a certain type of particle, known as scalars, to be produced at a large scale, as per new study. The Higgs boson is the only known scalar that has been discovered yet.

And if dark matter is indeed older than the Big Bang, the substance would definitely have interacted with scalar particles, said Tenkanen.

For a long time, researchers believed that dark matter must be a leftover substance from the Big Bang.
Researchers have long sought this kind of dark matter, but so far all experimental searches have been unsuccessful.

"If dark matter were truly a remnant of the Big Bang, then in many cases researchers should have seen a direct signal of dark matter in different particle physics experiments already," Tenkanen said.

Also Read:-

Are we traveling in time?

"Time travel" a possible phenomenon!

Time travel in past is possible or not?


The fact that researchers haven't seen such a signal yet is troubling. But Tenkanen said his model may point to a different approach for tackling the dark matter question, focusing on astronomical observations.

To the delight of dark matter enthusiasts, the study also proposes a way to test the origin of dark matter by observing signatures or imprints of dark matter in the distribution of celestial bodies in the universe.

In particular, Tenkanen said he sees potential in the European Space Agency's Euclid space telescope, which is scheduled to launch in 2022. That spacecraft is designed to map the edges of the universe, letting scientists look back about 10 billion years.

5 Aug 2019

Most acceptable time travel incidents!

Most acceptable time travel incidents!

Time travel

Off course you! once in your life have must imagine that what should I do if I travel in past and future, right!

The reason behind this is, the time travel is really an intresting phenomenon which could make some impossible things possible. In our society some people believe in time travel and some not, but there are a group of people's who claims that they have experienced time travel.

And we are going to know about some of the most interesting time travel incidents that people claims....



1. John Titor

John Titor first popped up in 1998, claiming he was from a parallel timeline where time travel was invented in 2034 by General Electric.

This story has its origins with oddball late-night radio host Art Bell, which should be an immediate red flag and expanded to include internet message boards circa the late 1990s and early 2000s.

Latter in 2001, he explained his mission was to collect a vintage computer from 1975, needing it to debug computers back in 2036.

In the conversations between Titor and posters on Art Bell Post to Post continue for the next few months.

Titor talks of imminent problems across the world beginning in 2004 – the cancellation of the Olympics, the splitting of the United States into warring factions, an epidemic of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and a series of Russian nuclear strikes in 2015 that devastate all major U.S. cities along with the European Union and China.

His “predictions” about the future mostly failed to come true (like the second American Civil War, circa 2013), and sleuthing around the Titor phenomenon turned up at least one person (nota time traveller) who seemed the likely source of the hoax.

Also Read:-

Are we traveling in time?

"Time travel" a possible phenomenon!

Time travel in past is possible or not?

But no amount of debunking can take away the weird and amazing details of this story; it’s one of the earliest instances of internet folklore, and still one of its most fascinating.

Although, it was never clear that the man who made contact with Bell (via fax) was the same as the man who later took to the internet and built a cult following.


2. Victor Goddard’s Airfield Time Slip

A senior Royal Air Force commander Sir Robert Victor Goddard,  widely known as Victor Goddard, claimed to have experienced a time slip.

In 1935, Goddard flew over what had been the RAF station Drem in Scotland on his way from Edinburgh to Andover, England.

The Drem station was no longer in use; after demobilization efforts following the First World War, it had mostly been left to its own devices. And, indeed, that’s what Goddard said he saw as he flew over it was a largely abandoned airfield.

On his return trip, though, things got weird.
He followed the same route he had on the way there, but during the flight, he got waylaid by a storm.

As he struggled to regain control of his plane, however, he spotted the Drem airfield through a break in the clouds and when he got closer to it, the bad weather suddenly dissipated.

But the airfield wasn’t abandoned this time. It was busy, with several planes on the runway and mechanics scurrying about.

Within seconds, though, the storm reappeared, and Goddard had to fight to keep his plane aloft again. He made it home just fine, and went on to live another 50 years but the incident stuck with him; indeed, in 1975, he wrote a book called Flight Towards Reality which included discussion of the whole thing.


3. The Anne Moberly and Eleanor Jourdain Incident


In 1901, two Englishwomen, Anne Moberly and Eleanor Jourdain, took a vacation to France. While they were there, they visited the Palace of Versailles.

And while they were at Versailles, they visited what’s known as the Petit Trianon, a little chateau on the palace grounds that Louis XVI gave to Marie Antoinette as a private space for her to hang out and do whatever it was that a teenaged queen did when she was relaxing back then.

But while they were there, they claimed, they saw some odd occurrences. They said they spotted people wearing anachronistic clothing, heard mysterious voices, and saw buildings and other structures that were no longer present and, indeed, hadn’t existed since the late 1700s.

Also Read:-

Chandrayaan 2: Full mission report

International Space Station!

"Hubble Telescope" Our First Eye In The Space!

Finally, they said, they caught sight of Marie Antoinette herself, drawing in a sketchbook.

They claimed to have fallen into a “time slip” like (Royal Air Force commander Sir Robert Victor Goddard)  and been briefly transported back more than 100 years before being jolted back to the present by a tour guide.

Did they really travel back in time? Probably not; various explanations include everything from a folie a deux (basically a joint delusion) to a simple misinterpretation of what they actually saw.

But for what it’s worth, in 191 roughly 10 years after what they said they had experienced occurred — the two women published a book about the whole thing under the names Elizabeth Morison and Frances Lamont simply called An Adventure. These days, it’s available as The Ghosts of Trianon.



4. The Hipster Time Traveller


In the early 2010s, a photograph depicting the 1941 reopening of the South Fork Bridge in Gold Bridge, British Columbia in Canada went viral for seemingly depicting a man that looked just a bit too modern to have been photographed in 1941.

The man looks, in fact, like a time traveling hipster with a Graphic t-shirt, textured sweater, sunglasses, the works.

The photo hadn’t been manipulated; the original can be seen above. So what the heck was going on?

Well, Snopes has plenty of reasonable explanations for the man’s appearance; each item he’s wearing, for example, could very easily have been acquired in 1941.

Others have also backed up those facts. But the bottom line is that it’s never been definitively debunked, so the idea that this photograph could depict a man from our time who had travelled back to 1941 persists. What do you think?


5. Project Pegasus And The Chrononauts


In 2011, Andrew D. Basiago and William Stillings claimed that they were former “chrononauts” who had worked with an alleged DARPA program called Project Pegasus.

Project Pegasus, they said, had been developed in the 1970s. In 1980, they were taking a “Mars training class” at a community college in California (the college presumably functioning as a cover for the alleged program) when they were picked to go to Mars.

And when asked about mode of transport then they replied ‘Teleportation'.

It gets better, too. Basiago and Stillings also said that the then-19-year-old Barack Obama, whom they claimed was going by the name “Barry Soetero” at the time, was also one of the students chosen to go to Mars. They said the teleportation occurred via something called a “jump room.”

The White House has denied that Obama has ever been to Mars. “Only if you count watching Marvin the Martian,” Tommy Vietor, then the spokesman for the National Security Council, told Wired’s Danger Room in 2012.

Although I'm fairly certain that these accounts and stories are either misinterpreted information or straight-up falsehoods, or may be correct but they're still entertaining to read about; after all, if you had access to a time machine, wouldn't you at least want to take it for a spin?

Here's hoping that one day, science takes the idea from theory to reality. It's a big ol' universe out there.

Also Read:-

•The home of 200 billion stars “The Milky Way"

•Our closest friend "The Andromeda "

•Nebula "The birth place of stars"!

29 Jul 2019

"Dragonfly 44" A weird galaxy made of 99% dark matter!

A milkyway sized weird galaxy made of 99% dark matter

 


What we know about dark matter is nothing. From decades we are trying to solve the mystery of dark matter but we still can’t detect them.

We are using very advanced instruments like Hubble telescope and even International space station (ISS) and many more powerful telescopes which is also present on the Earth, but we have not detected them yet.

Here should be a question, if we don’t have detected it yet then how do we know, even it exists?

Well, we know how much dark matter is because we know how much it affects the universe's expansion. Dark energy is roughly 68% and dark matter is 27% while normal matter is just 5% in this universe.
As we haven’t observed dark energy yet, so only we have explanations in the name of information.

This Universe consists 95% of dark matter and dark energy that means we only see the 5% of this universe but the rest 95% is present everywhere as a dominant factor.

Now, what if a milkyway sized galaxy found to be containing 99.99% of dark matter and just 0.01% of ordinary matter?

Astronomers have discovered a galaxy as big as the Milky Way that consists almost entirely of dark matter, a mysterious and invisible substance that scientists have been trying to figure out for decades.

Only one-hundredth of one percent (0.01%) of the galaxy is ordinary, visible matter like stars and planets. The other 99.99 percent of the stuff in this galaxy can't be seen, but their effects can se observed.

This dark galaxy was first detected in 2015 by using Dragonfly Telephoto Array in New Mexico and was named Dragonfly 44.

This Dragonfly Telephoto Array is combination of eight telephoto lenses and cameras, which is designed to look at the objects in the universe which are not bright enough to see from other telescopes.

Also read:-

•what exist before nothing?

•What is dark matter and dark energy?

The String Theory!


Pieter van Dokkum of Yale University and colleagues found the Dragonfly 44 galaxy in the Coma Cluster, 300 million light years from the Earth.

This distance is easily close enough far a telescope to see, as Hubble telescope can se billions of light year away, but still no one noticed these galaxies hidden in dark before.

Dragonfly 44 is one of the largest and the brightest galaxy they have found in Coma Cluster, which is a group of at least 1,000 galaxies. Dragonfly 44 is as big as milkyway galaxy but emits only 1% as much light.

Discovery of Dragonfly 44 galaxy

Pieter van Dokkum and his team realize something unusual about Dragonfly 44, that was a galaxy hold it together with so few stars. There wouldn’t be enough gravity and the stars should drift out. But here the suspect which was responsible for holding the stars and forming the galaxy was the dark matter.

But, how much dark matter? For finding this, they used one of the largest telescope on the Earth, located at the W. M. Keck Observatory in Mauna Kea, Hawaii named Keck II.

They used a tool on the Keck II telescope called the Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) to study the movement of stars in the galaxy.

In their observations, van Dokkum and his team found evidence of way more mass than they could actually see. Only 0.01 percent of the galaxy is made of ordinary, visible matter, that is made of atoms containing electrons, protons and neutrons.

But the other 99.99 percent of Dragonfly 44's mass is the dark matter. Of all the stuff in this Milky Way-size galaxy, we can see almost nothing.

Also read:-

•Einstein vs Newton on Gravity!

•WARP DRIVE, a technology to travel faster than the light!

What happens if you falls into a Black Hole?



"This has big implications for the study of dark matter," van Dokkum said.

"It helps to have objects that are almost entirely made of dark matter so we don't get confused by stars and all the other things that galaxies have.

The only such galaxies we had to study before were tiny. This finding opens up a whole new class of massive objects that we can study."

Although, 47 similarly faint galaxies were observed, far dimmer than the other galaxies within the Coma cluster. How these galaxies form is still a mystery.

Nature reports that a quasar at the heart of the galaxy may have destroyed the gas reserves that normally would’ve formed conventional stars, or that interactions with other galaxies in the Coma cluster might be responsible for the phenomenon.

The team is searching for more massive dark galaxies that are closer to Earth so they might uncover signals that reveal a dark matter particle.


22 Jul 2019

Chandrayaan 2: Full mission report

Chandrayaan 2: Full mission report

Chandrayaan 2

India has successfully launched it’s second lunar exploration missions named Chandrayaan 2, which is the successor of one of the most successful lunar mission Chandrayaan 1.

Chandrayaan 1 was the 1st to discover the presence of water molecules on the moons surface and was operated for almost 1 year successfully.
Apart from it, it had found preserved lava tube that may provide site for future human habitation. And there are many more success story of chandrayan 1.

Chandrayaan 2 mission is conducted by Indian space agency ISRO and has been launched on 22 July 2019, at 14:43 IST using GSLV MK III rocket from Satish Dhawan space centre located at Sriharikota at Andhra Pradesh. 

Earlier it as be launched on 15 July 2019, at 02:51 IST (15 July 2109 ,at 21:21 UTC), but due to some technical issues the launch was cancelled few minutes before the launch time but this time Chandrayaan 2 has been launched successfully.


Total journey time of Chandrayaan 2 will be of 48 days. Chandrayaan 2 will first orbit the Earth for 17 days, then the Chandrayaan will be separated. It will take 5 days to reach in Moon’s orbit after escaping from Earths orbit. After entering the Moon’s orbit it will orbit it for 28 days and finally will land on Moon’s surface.


With successful landing Chandrayaan 2 will become the 1st lunar mission to land near the south Pole of the moon and 4th country to achieve a soft landing on the moon after USA, USSR and China.

Chandrayaan 2 has a lunar orbiter, a lander and a rover. Chandrayaan 2 will attempt a soft landing of rover and lander at the latitude of 70°south in a high plane between two creators,  Manzinus C and Simpelus C.

Moon has the undisturbed record of the nascent solar system environment, so it will be helpful to know the solar system from different way. While there are some models explaining origin of moon and solar system exists but that all needs explanation.

Extensive mapping of moon surface will help us know about different composition on moon and will probably give important piece of information for trace the origin and evolution of the moon.

It has also objective of finding evidence of presence of water molecule on moon which was found by Chandrayaan 1 and the extent of its distribution on lunar surface and subsurface.

Lunar south pole is so important and intresting because, most of its past is completely and permanently covered under shadow and this makes the possibility of presence of water. And also the south pole has craters that are cold traps, containing fossilised record  of the early solar system.

Chandrayaan 2 has total 13 payloads, in which orbiter has 8 payloads, lander has 3 while rover has 2 payloads.

Chandrayaan 2- Orbiter


At the time of launch, the Chandrayaan-2 Orbiter will be capable of communicating with Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) at Byalalu, Karnataka as well as the lander Vikram. The mission life of the Orbiter is one year and it will be placed in a 100X100 km lunar polar orbit. Orbiter weights 2,379 kg.

Orbiter’s payloads include:-

1. Terrain mapping camera will make digital elevation model of whole Moon;
2. Large area soft x-ray spectrometer will examine the composition of surface of the Moon;

3. Solar x-ray monitor will provide the input of solar x-ray spectrum;
4. Imaging IR spectrometer will find the evidence of presence of ice and minerals;

5. Orbiter will examine the polar region of moon for finding the evidence of ice under the surface;
6. Atmospheric composition explorer-2 will study the environment of Moon;

7. Orbiter high resolution camera will take pictures of the surface the Moon; and
8. Its dual frequency radio science experiment will study the Ionosphere of the Moon.


Chandrayaan 2 Lander – Vikram



The lander of Chandrayaan-2 is named Vikram after Dr Vikram A Sarabhai, the father of the Indian space programme. It is designed to function for one lunar day.

Vikram has the capability to communicate with IDSN at Byalalu near Bengaluru, as well as with the Orbiter and Rover. The Lander is designed to execute a soft landing on the lunar surface. Lander weights 1,471 kg.

Lander's payload includes :-

1. Lander’s instrument for Lunar seismic activity will examine the earthquake movement on the sight;

2. Surface thermo- physical experiment will study the thermal conductivity of the moon; and
3. Langmuir probe will study the surface of the Moon.



Chandrayaan 2 Rover – Pragyan


Chandrayaan-2 rover is a six-wheeled robotic vehicle Pragyan can travel up to 500 metres and leverages solar energy for its functioning. It can only communicate with the Lander. Pragyan weights just 27 kg.

Rover's payload includes :-

1. Rover’s Alpha particle x-ray spectrometer will do detail analysis of Moon’s surface; and

2. Leaser induced breakdown spectroscope will test the surface composition of moon near the landing sight.

Chandrayaan-2 has several science payloads to expand the lunar scientific knowledge through detailed study of topography, seismography, mineral identification and distribution, surface chemical composition, thermo-physical characteristics of top soil and composition of the tenuous lunar atmosphere, leading to a new understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon.

The mission is scheduled to aboard Isro's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark-III. It will cost about Rs 987 crore roughly ($144 million). While China's  chang'e 4 costs Rs 5,759 crores ($836 million).

Isro's lander will attempt a "soft", controlled landing on the lunar surface after 48 days from the time of launch.

After Chandrayaan 2 ISRO is going to plann it's own Space Station. And it will be more advanced than International space station.


15 Jul 2019

What happens if you falls into a Black Hole?

What happens if you falls into a Black Hole?

What happens if you falls into a Black Hole?

Around a century ago, Einstein propose his theory of relativity which predicts that, a body of sufficient compact mass can deform that particular region of space-time to form a big deep dig like structure named as black hole.

This body is really interesting for us since after its discovery because the black holes give rise to many hypothetical concepts which can't be possible it’s without existence.

A body with such a huge gravitational pull, that even light can't escape once trapped in its gravitational pull. It was first considered by john Michelle and Pierre- Simon laplace in 18th century.

In 1916, Karl Schwarzschild proved the existence of a region of space-time from where light can't escape (black holes) by solving mathematical calculations of the theory of relativity.


Formation of Black holes


A black hole is formed when a star of about 10 solar mass used up all his fuel or no further hydrogen is remain in that star then, that's the time of death of a star. At this time the size of star increases rapidly and because of this increasing size the balance between the internal pressure and gravitational force produces by star itself decreases. 

When the internal pressure of a star is not sufficient to withstand its own gravitational force than the phenomenon takes place is known as gravitational collapse. In this gravitational collapse, whole mass of star starts composing into a extremely small point and because of such a huge mass per unit area, that point makes a big dig like curved structure in that particular region of space-time and that point is named as point of singularity.

The area where the curve in space-time starts forming a boundary line for other objects is known as event horizon. Once if light entered in event horizon then it also can’t escape from its gravitational pull.

What will happen if a person jump into a black hole?


Just after jumping inside a black hole, we will observe that our field of view is converting into darkness and after a instant, our whole view will converted into darkness and this part of black hole known as photon sphere.
In the region of photon sphere, black hole doesn't let light to escape from it and do not pull them also but in this region light rays orbits the black hole and form a circular ring so when we enters in this region and try to look side ways then the person may see himself because the reflected light from our eye can return back to our eye.

Because of such a huge mass back hole wrap  space along with time so if someone will try to see the man inside the black hole then he will see that the person is going inside the black hole very and very slowly and when the person reaches the event horizon then he will disappear for the outer person.

Things are different for us, the light coming from the universe will transform into a small circle and for how much time this phenomenon will continue is depend on size of black hole.

After entering into the event horizon off course we will be dead because of infinite gravitational pull. After crossing the region of event horizon, there will be a great difference in force of gravity on our head as compare to leg part and because of this variable gravity, our body will open like thread on atomic level and compressed into the singularity.

Is this universe not real | Are we living in computer simulation?

Are we living in computer simulation?

Are we living in computer simulation?

We are putting so much efforts in research, only to get answer of one question, One big question, who created us. This is the ultimate question for humans since they started thinking about their origin.

Theory of big bang tells about origin of this universe but didn't say anything about what's the actual reason of big bang and we all know that this theory is not perfect and there are many people raising questions against big bang, so the most satisfying theory is also theory under question.

To get the answer of this ultimate question, some philosophers and researchers proposed a hypothesis known as simulation hypothesis. According to this hypothesis our universe is not real  but a program which is running with some codes, like games.

Yes this is sounds like a weird hypothetical concept but this hypothesis has its points and chance of possibilities. For understanding this hypothetical theory its necessary to have some basic knowledge about, how the computer game works.

A Computer game is a software working on some specific codes, this means all the laws of physics can be programed, by using some codes only.
For making a game like real life, developer follow some real life basic principles, which makes game more interesting.

Now if we assume our universe as a programed game then it will be observed that there are some non violating laws in the universe like in the games, like every object get attracted by every other object with gravity.


The philosophers who believe in this theory has give some points to prove it:

Perfection of universe-

why the earth is so favourable for life?

Means earth rotates the Sun by maintaining the distance where the temperature of earth remains suitable for life and this distance is known as habitable zone. 

Another noticeable fact is, if Dark energy would present in stronger way than that write now, then there will be no life on any planet of universe.

Why everything on earth is so logistic about earth? 


It could be possible, that everything about us and about this universe should be coded by some programming just like computer games.

Dual nature of electron-

Young's double slit experiment tells when light passes through a perforated slit then it clearly shows particle nature, as accumulation of photon takes place.
When water is passed through that slit then, it shows wave nature by forming some ripples and wave front just like nature of wave.

In the next experiment when electron is passed though that slit then it shows predicted behaviour which is just like in case of water.

And when this experiment was performed again, then this time scientists were observing it very sensitively and the result of experiment was totally shocking.

Whenever scientists was observing the nature of electron over this experiment then electrons were showing particle nature as it was striking the second slit just like a particle.
It seems like, electrons were knowing that someone is observing him. We can say that reality is creating by our observation just like it happens in games.

In games, we don't have any idea about what's going to happen in next phase or next level but those phases are already programed by someone.

Theory of relativity-

Around a century ago, Einstein proved that the speed of light is a kind of speed limit of universe. That means, any object having mass can't travel with the speed of light.

Theory of relativity also proves that as fast an object travels the time gets slower for it. This phenomenon is known as time dilation.

According to simulation theory, our universe updates itself for observing all conscious bodies. This speed is many time faster than today's computers but these speeds are similar to the frames per second in games.

If The FPS of a game is increased in setting then the game starts lacking or getting slow down. So we can say that if any body is travelling with the speed of light then for that body, updating of the universe stops at that instant.

Quantum entanglement-

we all know that every particle has its own spin just like stars and planets and that spin is known as particle spin. But this is already proved that, this concept of unidirectional spin of particle comes around when we observe any particle and without our observance every particle is present in every possible spin and this state of particle is known as superposition state. 

If we make two particles from one then the spin of particles will be opposite to each other due to law of conservation of momentum. When an observer, starts his observation on any one particle then at the same instant the spin of second particle becomes opposite to each other.

If we separate those two particles with distance of some light years still then, this phenomenon will work as it is and that means the information of a particle is transported with more than the speed of light and this is against the theory of relativity. 

We don't have any answer of this question that how this phenomenon takes place?

According to simulation theory, when two particles entangled with each other then, two systems which are operating those particles combine and works as unity and this means those two particles or pixels can be operate from a single system so information can be transferred with the speed faster than the light.

Presence of computer codes in universe-

Maths is the only weapon to counter the mysteries of universe. Maths can be easily transformed into computer codes and that means, it is possible that we can transform each and everything of universe into computer codes.

Right now we can't do that because we don't have such type of computers but in future, it is not going to remain as a impossible task.

String theory is the only theory which explains about the universe before big bang and after studying this theory scientists find that there are some computer codes which is present in the universe.

Now we can simply assume that if we become capable to make a programed world in future then it is also possible that some civilization has already done it and our universe is just a simulated computer world.