31 Mar 2019

"VY canis majoris" a star which challenges our knowledge

The star which challenges our knowledge "VY canis majoris"

Stars are one of the main objects in our universe as they works as lamps in whole universe. We can’t really predict, how many stars we have in our universe because we still don’t know exact size of universe.

There are billions of stars are present in our observable universe whose are lightning the universe from billions of years. Stars forms in a condition of extremely dense and cold places in universe where temperature is just above absolute zero ( near about 10k).

The game of formation of star is totally dependent on pressure and density of gasses, mainly of carbon monoxide and dihydrogen.

Due to high pressure and low temperature, density increases and gravitational force shows its effects ( turbulence) and hence star forms. Most of the stars forms in nebulas.

Our sun is also a star like billions other of this universe. We can imagine the importance of stars as, if there are no stars in universe then universe is going to be just a dark place with no chance of any form of life because life needed light and which can produce by stars.
Our sun is really a massive star diameter of 1.39 million kilometres and 333, 000 times the mass of earth. These figures are really massive right? Well, if you think that than you are totally wrong, because we know a star which is 2100 times bigger than our sun. It is true, name of the star is VY Canis majoris.

This star comes under criteria of supergiant stars which are really big in comparing with our sun. If we put sun near some supergiant stars then it will take some years for us to find it. These supergiant stars are generally blue and red in color.

Red supergiants are generally old stars and carrying mass just about a ten sun’s. Red supergiants star form when any star used up enough nuclear fusion and suddenly process stops due to lack of hydrogen but this process of fusion restarts because of some remaining hydrogen at outer edge of star and hence star regains its ability of fusion.

At the time of this stage, star uses its fuel very quickly and produce enormous amount of heat and energy by decreasing its life. After some million year the life of that star reaches to an end by a supernova or by forming a black hole. Blue supergiants are comparably smaller and hotter than red one but they have very shorter life of some million years.
The discovery of VY canis majoris is a topic for discussion but we believe that, the French astronomer Jerome Lalande firstly discover this star in 1801.

This star is so big that if we replace VY canis majoris with our sun then this giant star will overtake the orbit of gas giant Jupiter and enters in orbit of Saturn by destroying its rings. The estimated temperature of this star is 3500 kelvin which not the highest temperature in our universe.

If we try to take a ride of this star then it will take 1100 years to fly over this star with an aeroplane. Now if we think that, there are billions of galaxy in this universe and there are billions of stars in each so we can say that it is possible that we have any star bigger than VY canis Majoris.


NASA rescently found big source source of water on mars!

Yes, there is a big source of water on Mars

Mars is one of the planet on which we expect most to find any sign of life. We have done 50+ mission to know about mars but the most that we try to find about Mars is presence of any life.

And even by doing so many mission we still don’t know very much about mars and now we are planning to step on the Mars surface for the very first time.

Mars as we know, is think to be presence of any civilization in the past. Researchers have found many such things that indicates to be presence of any developed civilization in the past.

Recently NASA has confirmed the presence of river on the surface of Mars less than a billion year ago. The river marks that is to be found  on the Mars is seems to be averagely more wider and longer than the river present on the Earth but the depth of the river can’t be clearly found due to absence of water in it from very long time.
Edwin kite, an assistant professor of geophysical science at the university of Chicago and his colleague performed a global survey of ancient waterways of Mars and characterize more than 200 such system using imagery and other data captured from its orbit.

Researchers said that the Martian rivers were flowed intermediately but intensely over much of the planets 4.5 billions history. They found rivers were impressive wide and in some cases their width is found to be twice the width of the rivers of the earth.

Still after finding such information about Mars’ river it is unclear that, how much water Martian rivers were carried out. Because, to determine the depth of river it requires up close analysis of river bed rocks and pebbles and such work can be done on  few locations on the Mars like Gale crater which is being explored be Curiosity rover since 2012, sent by NASA.

Researchers found that the ancient Mars’ river  were distributed whole over the mars and not were flowed on just some spots.

These new details could lead to understand Mars’ climate history and life hosting potential in better way, for example, rivers size shows that they flows continuously not  for few minutes in the warmest part of the Mars.
New study shows that scientists still have to learn about climate evolution of Mars. For example, how could mars’ thin environment could support heavy precipitation? What process drove the apparent dry wet cycle over long time span?

As much we answer these questions through our work a new one comes to challenge us. Here we are calculating the details of Mount Sharp (mountain of height 5.5km) which originates from Gale crater’s centre, which can give more appropriate result about the evolution of climate of Mars.

Also in 2020 NASA is going to sent a life hunting rover which will likely study an ancient river delta inside Mars’ Jezero  crater and will  contribute in this regard.

yes! NASA discovered life on Mars recently

yes! There is life on mars

Mars is our closest friends in some aspects. The red planet is an reason of our curiosity in our solar system from ancient times. The red and bright color of mars make it second most brighten object in night after Our moon. Humans are showing their interests in red planet from hundreds of years.

First time Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli observes Mars with his telescope and becomes the first man to make any map of red planet. He noticed some dark lines, which was river actually are crossing other lines on canals.

This was only the start of human investigation on Mars to find any hint of any kind of life.

Finally NASA is able to find something like fungi, algae and mushrooms shaped beings on the surface of mars. Different countries sends their rovers on Mars but the main tasks was done by Chinese and NASA’s rovers.

Rover after rovers was not the waste of money and equipments and finally NASA proved it. NASA’s curiosity and opportunity rovers discover fungi like objects on Mars surface.

Right now NASA hasn’t confirmed that the picture taken by these rover from past three days are actually the pictures of fungi, algae, any type of mushrooms or anything live. But if it is then it will be the greatest discovery on Mars since decades.

NASA already predicted that, if there is any life on Mars then it must be inside the surface of mars and not on surface but this news must excite every space lover.

Dr Regina das of department of microbiology’ the school of life sciences in India says that: "There are no geological or other abiogenic forces on Earth which can produce sedimentary structures, by the hundreds, which have mushroom shapes, stems, stalks, and shed what looks like spores on the surrounding surface.

The surprising fact is, NASA has captured 15 pictures of specimens growing from the ground in three days. One important thing is, we should not surprise from these discoveries because studies already proved that, there are many living being in our knowledge like, bacteria, viruses, lichens, and many other being have the ability to survive under the conditions like Mars.

Today we have many proofs about possibility of life on Mars. We have discovered many lost waterways and dry rivers on Mars which prove that, at some time there were also some time of good natural water transport takes place.

We not discover the sign of presence of liquid water on Mars but we also have Discovers the presence of water in liquid form at present time, as we know water is one of the important element for any type of life on any planet. After the discovery of liquid water, scientists discovered the organic material on Mars and now we may be found any life on the red planet.

After this discovery we can conclude that, we really didn’t have enough knowledge about our closest planet. Mars is still full of mysterious things until we explore it totally. In future, many countries are sending theirs probes on Mars for future discoveries but everything wouldn’t clear until human lands on the red planet.

Source: https://www.express.co.uk/news/science/1104520/life-mars-nasa-scientists-fungi-evidence-in-mars-curiosity-rover-photos

24 Mar 2019

How a black hole can be so big, with 59% of galactic mass!

Astronomers discovers "The biggest ever black hole" 

Black holes are always an interesting and exciting topic for us. As much as we try to explore them as much they are going to surprise us.

We never had any proper information about these celestial bodies, may be this is the reason that they keep surprising us with time.

The information we know about Black holes are, they are the body of massive mass which possess infinite gravitational force around it.

Black holes form when a star totally consume its fuel of nuclear fusion and unable to fuse further then the balance between its mass and gravitational force disturbed hence star starts collapsing until it convert into a single point of infinite mass and density.

When black hole totally convert into a single point then that point is termed as point of singularity which posses intimate hence it make a big and deep curve in space time which is deeper than curve made by any other object and that point and curve is simultaneously termed as black hole.

Because of such pit like curve, all the  objects are attracted towards that black hole, a hypothetical region around black hole from where no object can escape is known as event horizon.

Read more:-

•What latest image of black hole tells us?

•What happens if you falls into a Black Hole?

•Black hole can be formed without Stars, resent study suggests!

Once if light entered in event horizon then it also can’t escape from its gravitational pull.

Only these information about Black holes are sufficient to excite any one but the reality is, we haven’t see any black hole yet. The reason behind this is simple, they didn’t reflect light so how can we see them?

We have see a black hole recently but we know they really exist even before because we had detected the proof of their existence because of their gravitational force on the objects near a black hole.

Today we know that there is a super massive black hole in centre of our milky way galaxy named as “Sagittarius A*” (pronounced as sagittarius a star) and not only in our galaxy black holes must present in the centre on each and every galaxy. It may be smaller than the sagittarius A* or may be bigger than that.

In 2012 astronomers discovered a body of huge mass in a galaxy NGC 1277 which is 220 million light years away from us in Perseus constellation.

After rechecking with the same instrument and by changing instrument they confirmed that is a black hole of 17 million solar mass.

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According to calculations, this black hole of NGC 1277 have mass of 59 percent of bulge of its galaxy which is equal to 14 percent of the total staller mass of the galaxy where normally black holes are 0.1 percent of mass of the its galaxy.

According to Carl gebhardt of university of Texas, this black hole could be the first object in new class galaxy-black hole system.

The event horizon of this black hole is wider as 11 times the orbit of Neptune around sun, which is really massive.

According to Remco van den bosch it takes a year to calculate and double check the mass of this black hole to submit their research paper to publish.

Some astronomers believe that, the size of central part of this galaxy and its black hole is interlinked between each other.

The closest competitor of this black hole is a black hole in galaxy NGC 4486B which contain 11 percent of bulge mass of its galaxy.

According to Bosch’s team, they have discovered five other galaxies NGC 1277 which also may contain black hole of same size as NGC’s black hole or may be even larger than that. After this discovery, once again black hole surprises us and this time by its size.

These evidences shows the connection between Earth and Mars!

These evidences shows the connection between Earth and Mars!

Today we are living our life happily on this planet. But scientists knows the fact that, one day we have to leave our beautiful home planet because it will not remain suitable for life in future anymore.

Well, there are many ways by which life from earth is going to be extinct in future. May be, the earth collide with a big asteroid in future and because of this collision, earth loses its atmosphere hence the life on earth is going to be impossible in such conditions.

Here some possibilities are, human can destroy their planet by themselves. The nuclear war also may be the reason for destruction of humans or another way of ending of humans is global warming.

Hence, now we can say that life on earth is not possible for long time so we need to find any other planet where we can shift.

Now the question is, which type of planets we need to make our new home?

Here are the following criteria for the planet where life is possible:

1. The planet should be in habitable zone… i.e., water should be present in liquid state.

2. The atmosphere should be present on that planet.

3. The planet must have a rocky and hard surface rather than being a gaseous planet.

4. The essential elements which is necessary for life must present on that planet.

Also read:-

•Total mars Missions did by humans till now!

•NASA recently found big source of water on mars!

•yes! NASA discovered life on Mars recently

There are some more conditions which is needed to support life. We have found many planets where water is present in liquid state, the surface of the planet is rocky and the planets also have its atmosphere but still we can’t reach to those planets. 

Actually these planets are discovered by Kepler or other high range telescopes which has ability to see far from galaxy, but the fact is,  these discovered planets are too far from us.

Hence, we need a planet where we can really reach. Any planet in our own solar system and most of the people know that, the Mars is the planet where life could be possible in future.

Why Mars?

Humans are interested in Mars from 16th century, as we can see the description of the Mars in the books and novels of 16th century.

The reason behind this is, Mars is the only planet which is visible in night sky so clearly with its dark red colour.

Actually Venus is the closest planet from the Earth at a distance of 16 million miles. The mass of Venus is equal to the 80% of mass of earth and its gravitational force is 90% of earth’s gravitation.

Scientists see Venus as a twin of earth but the main problem with Venus is its temperature which is more than 400°C, which is not suitable for any type of life.

Scientists sends many landers and probes on Venus for study of its surface and its chemical composition but non of the probes were able to survive more than two hours on Venus.

The surface temperature of Venus is able to melt metal like iron and lead. NASA make concept named as HAVOC which means High altitude Venus operational concept.

According to this concept, scientists will make a city 50 meters above the surface of Venus but it is just a concept. The reason why this concept is look like impossible because it is very expensive and dangerous concept.
Because of these reasons Mars is our only choice for our second home.

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What happens if you falls into a Black Hole?

Life on Mars

Life on Mars is like a dream now but it may be possible in future. Humans sent their first rover on Mars in 1971 named as Mars 2 and 3 which was made by soviet union.

Yes! this rover becomes the first rover to touch the surface of Mars but this mission was failed because the rover gets crashed just after landing.

After this crash, NASA sends its lander Viking 1 in 1976 which complete its mission successfully.

After this lander, NASA sends first rover on Mars named as SOJOUNER in 1997.

This rover not only landed on Mars but it was able to explore the surface and atmosphere of mars because being a rover.

After the successful landing of SOJOUNER rover NASA sends Spirit and Opportunity on Mars.

These rovers were not able to find any sign of life on Mars but still scientists think that there may be any microbial life or other forms of life in past.

If we take a look on different human civilization history we will find the description of Mars in many civilization.

The first picture of mars was drawn by Egyptians in 1534 BC. Egyptians respects Mars but there were some civilization which get frightened from because they take Mars as a sign of danger.

May be the reason behind this is the red colour of mars.

Firstly, Romans named this red planet “mars” which was the name of their God of war. The calendar of Maya civilization was totally based on movement and orbit of mars.

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The String Theory!

In Tiotihuacan of Mexico, some researchers found a pyramid in 2003 and below the pyramid, there was  a cave.

When researchers sends an robot with camera in that cave then they found some rocks which was coated by gold and they also found that the wall of cave was also coated by gold such that if any light emitted there than the cave must start shine just like our universe.

But the question is why Maya civilization was making a 3D map like universe in a cave and here the interesting fact is, the temple situated at the top of the cave was the temple of a their God who look  like a flying snake.

And according to Maya civilization, this God is responsible for the destruction of mars and they make pictures of this God same as a Asteroid.

So here is a chance that there were life on Mars at a time which was destroyed by a collision with an Asteroid.

After the study of mars from decades, scientists also agree the fact that, at some point there was a collision on Mars. With these fact we can’t agree that there were some life on Mars at a time but somehow it was ended.

Hence this is the reason, why humans are always so excited about mars. Now days, space x has taken the responsibility to moving on Mars until 2030.

NASA is planning for making Moon base|

NASA is planning for making Moon base

After discovering lots of habitable planets in or out from our galaxy, finally scientists are shifting their attention back to planets of our solar system.

Here, scientists accept the fact that they can’t reach to those habitable planet with the current technologies hence, they started thinking about shifting human civilization in our own solar system.

Mars and moon, these two are the bodies in our solar system where life may be possible under certain conditions.

Mars is more away from us as compare to moon and after the discovery of lunar water on lunar poles scientists are showing their interests in moon more than ever before. After this discovery finally we know that there is a full water cycle on moon which under the control of sunlight and position of earth.

Now, here is a great chance that some type of organic material or any type of microbial life also may found in that moon water.

Is moon base is possible?

After the discovery of lunar water by Chandrayaan we can’t say that, the idea of Moon base is impossible but still it is not an easy task. The reason behind this is, moon is not such a habitable place for human colonies.

The distance from earth and moon is 384,000km. The day time temperature of moon surface is 127°C  which decreases to -172°C in night, it means both day and night temperature in not suitable for human colonies.

Also read:-

•Chandrayaan 2: Full mission report

•International Space Station!

•"Hubble Telescope" Our First Eye In The Space!

Some other problems are, absence of oxygen and all most absence of atmosphere, which means we have to survive the dangerous cancer causing radiations from the Sun.

Another strange thing is, moon takes 29 days to complete its one rotation around earth so one moon day is equal to 29 earth days, which means there is day at one side for a very long time near about 2 weeks and same with night.

But  after all these difficulties, scientists are still planning for a moon base, because it will important in future for survival of humans.

Idea of making moon base

This is a strange thing, but actually right now we are lashed with the technology which is important in making moon base, but the only problem is these are very-very expensive techniques.

For understanding, only NASA is spending $11 billion in idea of Moon base. 

Also all the countries are now showing their interests in making of this base. Actually we exploring moon from previous 60 years like, Apollo mission and American lunar satellite reconnaissance mission firstly map the surface of Moon then Chinese lunar robot under the part of chang’e3 moon mission predict the presence of water, ice, metals and other minerals on moon then India’s chandrayan detect the presence of water on moon in form of ice.

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Because moon is not very suitable place of humans so we have to make underground colonies on moon.

We also have the idea for that, according to some researchers, we can make the bricks of volcanic powder which is present on Moon, by doing its sintering which actually increases the bonding between particles of volcanic powder.

After making bricks we can make igloos of that. Another important thing on moon is energy, of course there is no fossil fuels on moon but there is something special and better than fossil fuels. It is Helium 3, which is fuel of nuclear fusion energy and also it is a non polluting fuel.

According to researches, there is nearly 1.1 million metric ton of Helium 3 is present on Moon which is really sufficient for human needs. After all these ideas we can say that life on moon is possible but not easy.

Impossible! Astronomers find a dust ring very close to the sun|

Impossible! Astronomers find a dust ring very close to the Sun

Our solar system is not empty, it is filled with dust from crumbling asteroids and comets. But, it forms ring only around few planets. Here, only Venus and Earth have such a dust ring which they can say their own.

On the other hand astronomers see little planet Mercury all alone and which is only heating source and scientists even didn’t dream about the presence of dust particle around the mercury. But their prediction went wrong.

Recently astronomers have found a vast trail of cosmic dust around the Mercury, which is forming a ring of width of 15 million kilometres (9.3 million miles).

Astronomers were predicting about Mercury that it should not wear such a dust ring  like Venus and Earth because it is too small as well as too close to the sun. As it is too close to the Sun so that solar wind and the magnetic force from the Sun would blow away all the excess dusts from the orbit of Mercury.

How the astronomers have found this weird ring around the Mercury?

In actual, it was discovered accidentally, like x-ray. Actually, a solar scientist Stenborg  with his colleague Russell Howard was looking for gaps in the dust near the sun where matter should have been vaporise and swept clean.

But, scientists didn’t find dust free space from earth to the Sun. Dust are present every where from where we are sitting to the Sun.

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And we found this because the light that we see is actually comes after reflecting from those dust particles  and with creating a force 100 times bigger the coronal light itself.

Generally while studying the corona of Sun scientists ignores this fact but this time they keep it and after comparing pictures taken by NASA's STEREO they make a model that separates both kind of lights to calculate how much dust is present in the space.

And, what they found was a bright circle all the way around the  orbit which was formed by 3 percent to 5 percent of excess dust density at the centre of the ring. And also all around the sun we can see same increase of 5 percent dust density.

This discovery questions our understanding because, if Mercury really have such cosmic dust ring, then this material is must able to go far close to the Sun which we ever thought possible.

Also read:-

•The home of 200 billion stars “The Milky Way"

•Our closest friend "The Andromeda "

•Nebula "The birth place of stars"!

The study of these cosmic materials can disclose many mysteries about the universe and can give clue about the formation of our solar system.

And if we able to take sample and study that material which can survive so close to the sun then it will really very helpful for us for making such probes, and spacecraft which can study sun from very close to it, and will also help in many new discoveries in the universe.

17 Mar 2019

One more planet found revolving around the Sun!

Finally we got a new planet in our solar system

Finally we got a new planet in our solar system

We have studied about solar systems from our junior classes that there are eight planets in our solar system, orbiting our sun in a fixed orbit. At a time, we count nine planets that was Pluto but latter it loses its identity as planet and then known as a dwarf .

Hence we have only eight planets in our solar system that Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

With the help of different telescopes and space probes, we collect lots of information about different planets and we also study the moons of different planets. After revealing everything about our solar system, scientists move forward towards interstellar space, other solar systems and even other galaxy.

Now days we know the mass of our galaxy which is 1.5 trillion solar mass. But here now scientists are predicting that they have found out a new planet in our solar system and they simply named it planet nine.

How scientists found planet nine?

Planet nine is a hypothetical planet which orbit our sun from a very large distance. Actually we didn’t still get our planet nine but scientists feels the proof of its existence.

The gravitational effect of planet nine can be observed on extreme trans-neptunian objects so called eTNOs. eTNOs are the objects orbiting the sun from a distance equal to 250 the distance of earth and sun.

According to general information, these eTNOs always tends to orbit sun in a closest path in any one sector but here scientists observe that there is any heavy mass body which is literally far away from these eTNOs and this body is interfering the path of eTNOs.

Hence, only a planet have such a huge size and mass which can interfere in path of any body with such a huge distance.

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Predicted property of planet nine

According to researches, the predicted mass of planet nine is five to ten times the mass of the earth and its distance from sun is nearly 800 times the distance of earth and sun.

According to Konstantin batygin and Michael E. Brown, the planet nine was the core of a giant planet of our solar system in past which is thrown out from the solar system by the gravitational pull of Jupiter during the process of genesis of our solar system.

Some other theories says, this planet is captured by the gravitational force of sun from any other solar system, where some says this is a planet who is thrown out from its own galaxy and captured by our sun.

According to astronomer Jean luc Margot, if we will able to detect planet nine in future then it will satisfy under our current definition of planet to call him a planet. Because of such a huge distance from sun it’s surface temperature will be very low and planet is either going to be a ice giant or a gas giant.

Now the question is, if there is another planet in our own solar system then why we haven’t detect it until now?

We are exploring other galaxies, nebulas, stars and their planet even they are at a huge distance from us but still we have few knowledge about them, then how we misses a planet in our own solar system?

Here are many answers can satisfy us, may be this planet is a dark planet like Tres 2b which is not reflecting enough light of sun which make this planet invisible. But still the question is, we still found Tres 2b from such a huge distance and not a planet in our own solar system?

The answer supports this is, may be this planet is going to be the next darkest planet in the universe. The idea behind this is, Tres 2b is orbiting its star from a very small as it is very closer to its star but in the case of planet nine, it’s distance from sun is a huge distance which is sufficient to make it a invisible planet if it has a same surface and atmosphere like Tres 2b.

But still all these are hypothesis and ideas and it is not going to convert into fact until we discover Tres 2b. But one thing is very clear that, universe still have many more things which can surprise us.

Source: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planet Nine

Top 20 Astronomical events of 2019

Top 20 Astronomical events of 2019

Astronomy is very big and intresting topic to know about. Everyday we try to know more and more about this big Universe. And sometime we find something weird, like a star older than the Universe (HD 140283 star). And sometime we find planets like PSR B1620-26b which is really weird and some planets which could be habitable like Earth.

Apart from its weirdness it also looks very beautiful that we realises every night. And it looks more and more beautiful when some astronomy event occurs, like Meteor shower, Blue Moon, March Equinox, and many more.

So, here we will know about such astronomy events that will happen in 2019......

1. Quadrantids Meteor shower (3,4 January 2019)

The Quadrantids is an average shower, with a rate of up to 40 meteors per hour when it is at its peak. It is going to produced by dust grains left behind by an extinct comet known as 2003 EH1. This shower runs 1-5 January annually. It will be on its peak this year on night of 3rd and morning of the 4th January. Best viewing will be from dark location after mid night and can be appear anywhere in the sky.

2.Conjunction of Venus and Jupiter (Jan 22, 2019)

A conjunction of Venus and Jupiter will be visible on January 22 in early morning. This impressive sight of two bright planets will be visible in the east just before the sunrise.

3.Supermoon,Full Moon (February 19, 2019)

On February 19, it will be occasion of Full moon as well as Big Moon. Supermoon because on this day the moon will be at its closest approach to the earth and may look slightly brighter and larger than usual. Supermoon will also occur on January 22 and March 21.  And the phase of full moon will occur at 15:53 UTC.

4.March Equinox (March 20, 2019)

The March Equinox will occur at 21:58 UTC. In this event sun will shine on equator directly and there will be nearly equal amounts of day and night throughout the world. This is also the first day of spring in Northern hemisphere and the first day of fall (autumnal equinox) in the Southern Hemisphere.

Also read:-

Chandrayaan 2: Full mission report

International Space Station!

"Hubble Telescope" Our First Eye In The Space!

5. Lyrids Meteor Shower (22,23 April, 2019)

The Lyrids is an average shower, which usually producing about 20 meteors per hour when it is its peak. This shower is produced by dust particles left behind by comet C/1861 G1 Thatcher. This shower runs annually between April 16-25. This year it will be on peak in the night of the 22nd  and morning of 23rd  April. It will be visible in dark midnight everywhere but will be distributed little much by the waning gibbous moon.

6. Eta Aquarids Meteor Shower (6,7 May, 2019)

The Eta Aquarids is an above average shower, which is capable in producing up to 60 Meteors per hour. Its more of the activity is seen in southern hemisphere and in Northern hemisphere the rate reaches up to 30 meteors per hour . This shower is produced by dust particles left behind by comet Halley, which is known and absorbed since ancient times.  This shower occurs annually from April 19 to may 28. On the night of May 6 and morning of May 7 it will be on its peak this year.

7. June Solstice (June 21, 2019)

In this event  North pole of the earth will be tilted towards the sun, which will reach its northernmost position in the sky and will directly over the tropic of cancer at 23.44 degrees north latitude. The June Solstice will occur at 15:54 UTC. This is the first day of summer in Northern hemisphere and first day of winter in southern hemisphere.

8. Total Solar Eclipse (July 2, 2019)

Total Solar Eclipse
A total Solar Eclipse occurs when moon completely blocks the sun and reveals the beauty of Sun's outer atmosphere known as corona. Its beauty of totality will be visible in parts of southern Pacific ocean, central Chile, and central Argentina. And partial eclipse will be visible in most part of the southern pacific ocean and Western South America.

Also read:-

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9. Delta Aquarids Meteor Shower (28,29 July, 2019)

The delta Aquarids is an average shower that can produce  up to 20 meteor per hour when it is at its peak. This shower is produced by debris left behind by comet Marsden and Kracht. This Shower runs annually from 12 July to 23 August. This year it will be on peak on the night of July 28 and on morning of July 29 but the moon will create very much difficulty this year. 

10. Perseids Meteor Shower (12,13 August, 2019)

The Perseids shower is one of the best shower to observe which produces up to 60 meteor per hour and is famous for producing large number of bright meteors. This shower is produced by comet Swift-Tuttle. This shower shows annually from July 17 to August 24 and this year it is on peak at the night of August 12 and morning of August 13. But it will be mostly blocked out by full moon this year but could be still a good show.

11. September Equinox (September 23, 2019)

September Equinox occurs at 07:50 UTC. The sun will shine directly on equator and there will be equal amounts of day and night throughout the world. This is also the first day of fall (autumnal equinox) in the Northern  and the first day of spring in southern hemisphere.

12. Draconids Meteor Shower (October 8, 2019)

The Draconids is a minor shower which produces only about 10 meteors per hour. This Meteor shower is producer by dust grains left behind by the comet 21P Giacobini-Zinner. Annually this shower is shown from October 6-10 and this year it will be on peak in the night of 8th October. Best viewing of this shower is in the early evening instead of early morning than others.

13. Mercury at Greatest Eastern Elongation (October 20, 2019)

On October 20, the planet Mercury reaches greatest eastern elongation of 24.6 degrees from the Sun. This is the best time to view Mercury since it will be at its highest point above horizon in the evening sky. You can look for this planet low in the western sky just after sunset.

14. Rare Transit of Mercury Across the Sun (November 11, 2019)

On November 11, Mercury will be directly between the Earth and the Sun. If you want to see this rare event which happens only once in few year then you will see it only from telescopes. And this event is not going to happen until 2039. Best place to view this event is eastern United State, Central America, and Southern America.

Also read:-

Are we traveling in time?

"Time travel" a possible phenomenon!

Time travel in past is possible or not?

15. Leonids Meteor Shower (17,18 November 2019)

The Leonids shower is an average shower, which produces up to 15 meteors per hour when at its peak. This shower is unique because it has a cyclonic peak which comes about after every 33 years where hundred of meteors per hour can be seen. The last cyclonic shower was occur in 2001. The Leonids shower is produced by dust grains left behind by comet Tempel- Turtle. This shower runs annually between 6-30 November. And will be on peak this year an the night of 17th and morning of 18th. Meteors will radiate from constellation Leo and will be see  in the sky.

16. Conjunction of Venus and Jupiter(November 24, 2019)

On the evening of 24th November in the western sky after sunset  the conjunction of two bright planets Venus and Jupiter will be visible. This conjunction will be visible within 1.4 degree of each other in the evening sky.

17. Geminids Meteor Shower (13,14 December 2019)

Geminids Meteor Shower
The Geminids is the king of meteor showers and considered by many to be the best  shower in the haven, this is because it produces up to 120 multicolored meteors per hour at its peak. This shower is produced by debris left behind by an asteroid known as 3200 Phaethon, which runs annually from December 7-17, and this year will at peak on night of 13th and morning of 14th. Unfortunately this year this beautiful shower will be blocked by the moon but will be still good show.

18. December Solstice ( November 22, 2019)

On December Solstice the south pole of Earth will be tilted towards the sun and the earth will be reached its southern most point in the sky and the sun will be directly over the tropic of Capricorn at 23.44 degrees south latitude at 04:19 UTC. This is the first day of winter in Northern hemisphere and first day of summer in southern hemisphere.

19. Annual solar Eclipse (December 26, 2019)

On December 26, an annual solar Eclipse is going to occur when Moon will be too far away from the Earth to completely cover the sun. Even the sun's corona will not be visible during this eclipse.  The path of the eclipse will start in Saudi Arabia and will move east towards southern India, northern Sri Lanka, part of Indian ocean and Indonesia.

How astronomers discovered such a small black hole?

How astronomers discovered this extreme black hole?

How astronomers discovered this extreme black hole?

Black holes are really interesting and extremely complex object for us. These are the objects with huge mass concentrated at a small point increasing the gravitational force of the point million times than before.

We can say that, black holes are the dead body of huge stars whose mass is greater than equal to 5 solar mass.
When any star used up its all hydrogen as a fuel and unable to do nuclear fusion then the star is unable to withstand its own gravitational pull hence it starts collapsing until it collapse in a single point.

The point mass is actually invisible and it makes a huge curve in space time hence and produces huge gravitational pull which attracts any object under its zone. The point mass then starts increasing and it is termed as point of singularity.

The outer boundary of a black hole from where no object can escape is known as event horizon. Once if light entered in event horizon then it also can’t escape from gravitational pull of black hole.

According to Stephen hawking, black holes are not really black, as they emit a radiation known as Hawking’s radiation after him which make black holes visible in some case.

But if black hole are not so big then detecting them is not an easy task. But here astronomers done this challenging task.

Also read:

How astronomers detect this small black hole?

Rescently, astronomers have detect a black hole in a gas cloud which is not so big in size. Actually astronomers detect this black hole because of its effect on interstellar gas cloud.
A research team which is lead by Shunya Takekawa at national research observatory in Japan has observed this gas cloud in Sagittarius constellation.

They named this black hole as HNC-0.009-0.044. It is a gas cloud which is coming towards the centre of Milky way galaxy. This gas cloud is more than 22,000 light years away from us.

After performing some high resolution examination, the researchers said that the gas cloud is rotating around any massive object in the centre of that  cloud.

Takekawa’s team found a heavy body of mass near to 30,000 solar masses Concentrated in a small space ( smaller than our solar system). After many resolutions Takekawa’s team didn’t able to see any object like that so he claimed it as a normal sized black hole.

According to some researchers, this mediate size black hole is only 20 light years from the black hole present in the centre of our galaxy and it is moving toward it because of its high gravitational pull.

In future this medium sized black hole will collide with the black hole in our galactic centre and form a much more larger black hole and if human civilisation will remain saved for that time than we will able to detect that collision between these two black holes because of high gravitational waves released during the time of collisions of black holes.

Researchers says that in future we will able to detect many more black holes like it in our galaxy by studying this one.

Finally astronomers find out moving water molecules on moon!

Finally astronomers find out moving water molecules on moon

Finally astronomers find out moving water molecules on moon

Moon is the only natural satellite of earth which is only 1.28 light seconds away from earth’s surface. Earth’s moon is the 6th largest moon in the solar system. The moon is dense composition of hydrogen, helium, sodium, potassium, neon and argon.

We see moon in a night sky as a beautiful brighten object . But astronomers see moon as a most closest celestial body from earth which may have any possibilities of any form of life, it may be in form of multicellular organisms on in form of unicellular organisms but it does not really matter for researchers.

After NASA’s Apollo 11 program, we just stop thinking about any possibility of life on moon but astronomers didn’t loose their hope. They are still trying to find some sign of life or anything interesting on moon.

We know moon as a hard rock, orbiting earth with a very close distance, but astronomers know that there is water on moon in form of ice near its pole. But the problem is that any life form can’t grow in that ice because it need a liquid form of water.

But, finally astronomers discovered the moving liquid water particles on moon’s surface. This fantastic job is done by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Actually LRO found moving water molecules in day side of Moon.

This exciting discovery will force organisations to send astronaut on moon. This moving water molecules are the result of Moon water cycles which is interfered by earth and the Sun.

According to scientists, the water on moon is the reason of hydrogen ions present in the solar wind turns into moon water when moon passes from behind the earth and earth provides a shield to moon and the little bit of solar wind reaches to moon Which is converted in water.

We all heard about Helium 3 which is found on the surface of Moon and how it could be beneficial for us in making of fuels and generating energy from it.

In the same way scientists are predicting that the moon water is also a very beneficial substance for our daily purpose as we can generate thermal and electrical energy from this water. If we will able to use moon water as a fuel then there will be a great chance that moon is going to convert into our next space station.

10 Mar 2019

“HD 140283” a star older than the Universe

 “HD 140283” a star older than the Universe

HD 140283” a star older than the Universe

Age of this infinitely spreaded universe is about 13.8 billon years. As we know this universe was created after a big explosion which is known as big bang. And this big bang theory is most acceptable theory for origin of this giant universe.

After the big bang every thing came into existence. Firstly sub atoms like electron, proton, etc were formed. Then the gas and dust cloud formed and after that the stars and planets came to existence. But the stars came into existence after about 1 billion years and now you can think about the age of planets and moons.

But, is it possible for a star or a planet to be older than the universe?
Probably you will say not because everything came to existence after big bang but it is just a theory and we don’t know it should be possible or not.

Here we have discovered a star whose age is estimated to be older than the universe. Yes, it sounds crazy. So,  know more about this crazy star......

Star “HD 140283” or Methuselah star

It is named as Methuselah due to its age which is observed older than the universe. Methuselah is about 190 light years far from us in milkyway galaxy and is present in constellation Libra specifically towards Ophiuchus constellation.
HD 140283 is known by astronomers from 100 years as high velocity star which moves with the speed of 800,000 mph(1.3million km/h) and it covers the width of full moon in the sky in every 1,500 years, said researchers.
HD 140283” a star older than the Universe

As earlier age of HD 140283 was calculated to be 16 billions, but later after further studies the refined the age near to 14 billions with errors plus minus 800 million years which is not possible according to our model of universe that’s why this star become a mystery for astronomers and let them to study more about it.

If we ignore the error plus minus age then we find HD 140283 is 0.7 billion years older than the universe. But, still after regarding the error age the problem not solves. Even by setting the errors, the HD 140283 is now 150 million younger then the universe but according to model of universe this is not the proper time for stars to born.


Even we try to conclude HD 140283 to be the first generation star which was formed after few hundred million years after big bang but they all were died in explosion (supernovae) after just few million year and after this second generation stars were formed. And scientists had already conformed it to be a second generation star.

As much we know, all that we estimate about the phenomenon in the universe is model dependent that is formed by us. If one changes the model this all could change. It should be possible that the age of universe is not that we know it should be different in actual. And this should be also possible that we are not able to calculate the actual age of HD 140283 with our current technique of calculation of age of celestial bodies them.

The age of HD 140282 (Methuselah) star must still be determined and the object offers the great change  to push science in a new, unknown direction.