5 May 2019

The String Theory!

The string theory

General theory of relativity is one of the most important and useful theory for humans, but the paradox is that the great theory fails to tell us the reason of gravitational force between very small particles (electron, protons, etc).

And because of this reason, scientists tried to construct a new theory which is valid for quantum particles and hence they named it "Quantum field theory".

This was a quiet successful theory for all the quantum particles but here again same paradox introduced; this theory was not valid for large objects like planets, stars, moons, etc.

Hence scientists concluded that ,for understanding this universe we have to use two different theories at different places as general relativity that is useful for large objects and quantum field theory which is useful for quantum particles.

Now the question arises, why we need two different theories to understand this universe?

For answering this, physicists develop an idea about a theoretical framework in which the point like particles which we have studied under the classical physics that are replaced by a unidimesional objects termed as strings. And this was the story of the  birth of the string theory.
This theory is special because it talks about multiple dimensions, universe before big bang and quantum gravity.

After the study of interaction between particles, scientists concluded that there are four fundamental forces exist in nature; gravitational force, electromagnetic force, weak and strong nuclear force.

Gravitational force is the weakest among all and strong nuclear force is the strongest among  all. We are understanding the force of strong nuclear force we can take the example of helium atom in which 2 positively charged proton is attracted by strong nuclear force.

For understanding full concept of string theory, let's explore standard model of particle physics. According to standard model of particle physics, all the forces are carries by 12 basic building blocks, 6 of them are quarks and named as up, down, top, bottom, charm and strange.
Other 6 are leptons and they are named as electron, muon, tou and other three are neutrino of these leptons.

After all the calculations, scientists found the reason of three forces on quantum level but they are not able to find even the existence of gravitational force on quantum level. This means we need a theory which can explain the concept of quantum gravity and string theory is the only one, that describes, how these strings propagate through space and interact with each other.
According to string theory inside a proton there is quarks and inside quarks some energy must be present which vibrate all the time and takes a shape of strings but it does not mean that strings are always  in a closed structure, they may be present in the form of straight line but the important is, that they vibrates all the time.

String theory says that, the vibration of the strings decides the physical and chemical state of the body,From the view of string theory, everything in this universe is made up of strings and the vibrations of strings decides the existence of each and everybody.

The positive point for string theory is, that it explains the existence of the quantum gravity and it also explains the reason of big bang. In string theory one of the many vibrational states of string explain the existence of a quantum particle known as graviton which is responsible for quantum gravity and this is the reason why string theory is known as thetheory of quantum gravity.

String theory also have some demerits like after all the calculations string theory predict that there must be minimum 10 dimensions around us where one of them is time and if these dimensions didn't exist then string theory didn't work because string theory only work under the universe which have minimum 10 dimensions and reality is existence till now.

String theory predict an omniverse where more than one universe exist with the existence of different timelines as compare to others. Simply we can say that string theory works under multiverse and not under universe.

String theory is totally based on hypothesis and mathematical calculations hence scientists predict that our thinking also effect the strings to interact with each other. According to a predictions, everything we think in our daily life or we can think in our life is must happening in some universe of multiverse because string interactions makes it possible in different universe in different timelines.

This theory is not the most acceptable theory amongst all but still many scientists believe that this theory can answer all of our questions in future.

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Total mars Missions did by humans till now!

Missions that uncovered the hidden facts of the Mars!

After realising, that Venus shouldn’t be suitable for life due to it’s very high temperature, we start looking towards the planet Mars.

From then the research on Mars continues and from 1960 we are sending probes, spacecrafts, and landers continuously. There are 57 missions that had been executed since 1960 but we had got success in just 26 among them.
That means 30 of them never left the Earth or got failed. United State should proud for it because, among 26 missions 19 were executed by US .

This space race started in October 1960, when Soviet Union launched  it’s two spacecrafts 1M NO.1 on October 10 and 1M NO.2 on October 14, but both missions got failed.

Again, after interval of two years Soviet Union launched three mission in 1962. Spacecrafts 2MV-4 No.1, 2MV-4 No.2 and 2MV-3 No.1 were launched on October 24, November 1 and November 4 respectively. But, unfortunately all of them failed.

NASA was late but not far from success in this space race. In 1964 NASA came with two flyby missions, Mariner 3 and Mariner 4 . This time it was a great achievement for NASA because for the first time in the history any Mars mission was completed successfully and this was Mariner 4. Whereas Mariner 3 failed. Also Soviet Union sent Zond 2 in respective year but again Union failed.

In 1969, NASA and Soviet Union both organised two missions both NASA launched Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 where both were successful. Whereas Soviet union’s 2M No.521 and 2M No.522, again both failed.

1971 was a year when maximum number of missions were conducted. In total 8 mission, Soviet Union conducted 6 missions in which only two were successful and both of them were orbiters. As here only 2 in 6 was successful but it was really great achievement for Soviet Union because, after 10 failure missions it was there very first success. And on Mars 3 lander became very first lander to land successfully on mars. But it lost it’s connection just after 14.5 seconds of landing and that’s why considered as partial failure mission.

Whereas NASA sent two spacecrafts in year 1971 and among them only one was successful and again this was orbiter.

Soviet Union took four attempts in 1973 with Mars 4, Mars 5, Mars 6 and Mars 7 missions. Among four, two of them were orbiters and another two were lander flyby. But unfortunately all of them again failed.

In 1975, NASA come with four mars missions among them two were lander Viking 1 lander and Viking 2 lander and another two were orbiters Viking 1 orbiter and Viking 2 orbiter and for the very first  time  all four were successful and this was NASA's great achievement.

After wait of 15 years, in 1988 Soviet Union comes with Phobos 1 and Phobos 2, orbiter with lander. Among them Phobos 1 get failed and also the lander of Phobos 2 was also failed but its orbiter worked successfully and that’s the reason Phobos 2 mission is known as partial failure mission.

NASA did another three successful mission in 1996 among  them one was orbiter which was orbiter named Mars Global Surveyor and was operated for seven years. Another was lander  and third one was a rover and this mission was named as Sojourner and this was very first rover on another planet.

 In 1996 Rosaviakosmos Russia also organised Mars 96 mission but unfortunately it failed.

In 1998 ISAS Japan did its first mission Nozomi, this the fuel of this spacecraft ruined out before it reached in  orbit and got failed.
NASA also conducted a mission in 1998 called Mars Climate Orbiter but this one burnt out in  atmosphere while fixing in orbit due to miss conversation error.

NASA conducted Deep space 2 in 199 but it failed,and again in 2001 NASA sent Mars Odyssey which is expected to remain operational unit until 2025.

ESA Europe participate in mars mission in 2003 with mission Mars Express and in very first attempt and still has enough fuel to remain as operational unit till 2026. Along with it ESA sent Beagle 2 but it failed.
In 2003 NASA also did two successful missions Spirit and Opportunity and these both were Rover and both were successful.

In 2004 ESA sent Roseeta successfully which was a Gravity assist.

In 2005, NASA again sent Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter successfully and still under operation. Again in 2007, NASA sent Phoenix which was lander and Dawn which was gravity assist and  were successful.

In 2011, Roskosomos Russia did failure mission,, Fobos-Grunt.  China for the very first time sent Yinghuo-1 but started it’s mars with failure. But this year NASA sent Curiosity rover successfully and this rover helped very much to know about Mars.

In 2013, for the very first time ISRO India entered into this race with Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan), and in the very first attempt ISRO India did it successfully and this mission will be continued till 2020.
In 2016, ESA/Roscosmos/Europe/Russia combinly send ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter which was a successful mission.

In the same year EAS Europe again did a failure mission.
On May 2018, NASA sent InSight& MarCO which is lander and two Cubesats flyby which is under operation.
And many more countries are preparing  for further mars missions and hope complete it successfully.

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