The String Theory!

The string theory

General theory of relativity is one of the most important and useful theory for humans, but the paradox is that the great theory fails to tell us the reason of gravitational force between very small particles (electron, protons, etc).

And because of this reason, scientists tried to construct a new theory which is valid for quantum particles and hence they named it "Quantum field theory".

This was a quiet successful theory for all the quantum particles but here again same paradox introduced; this theory was not valid for large objects like planets, stars, moons, etc.

Hence scientists concluded that ,for understanding this universe we have to use two different theories at different places as general relativity that is useful for large objects and quantum field theory which is useful for quantum particles.

Now the question arises, why we need two different theories to understand this universe?

For answering this, physicists develop an idea about a theoretical framework in which the point like particles which we have studied under the classical physics that are replaced by a unidimesional objects termed as strings. And this was the story of the  birth of the string theory.
This theory is special because it talks about multiple dimensions, universe before big bang and quantum gravity.

After the study of interaction between particles, scientists concluded that there are four fundamental forces exist in nature; gravitational force, electromagnetic force, weak and strong nuclear force.

Gravitational force is the weakest among all and strong nuclear force is the strongest among  all. We are understanding the force of strong nuclear force we can take the example of helium atom in which 2 positively charged proton is attracted by strong nuclear force.

For understanding full concept of string theory, let's explore standard model of particle physics. According to standard model of particle physics, all the forces are carries by 12 basic building blocks, 6 of them are quarks and named as up, down, top, bottom, charm and strange.
Other 6 are leptons and they are named as electron, muon, tou and other three are neutrino of these leptons.

After all the calculations, scientists found the reason of three forces on quantum level but they are not able to find even the existence of gravitational force on quantum level. This means we need a theory which can explain the concept of quantum gravity and string theory is the only one, that describes, how these strings propagate through space and interact with each other.
According to string theory inside a proton there is quarks and inside quarks some energy must be present which vibrate all the time and takes a shape of strings but it does not mean that strings are always  in a closed structure, they may be present in the form of straight line but the important is, that they vibrates all the time.

String theory says that, the vibration of the strings decides the physical and chemical state of the body,From the view of string theory, everything in this universe is made up of strings and the vibrations of strings decides the existence of each and everybody.

The positive point for string theory is, that it explains the existence of the quantum gravity and it also explains the reason of big bang. In string theory one of the many vibrational states of string explain the existence of a quantum particle known as graviton which is responsible for quantum gravity and this is the reason why string theory is known as thetheory of quantum gravity.

String theory also have some demerits like after all the calculations string theory predict that there must be minimum 10 dimensions around us where one of them is time and if these dimensions didn't exist then string theory didn't work because string theory only work under the universe which have minimum 10 dimensions and reality is existence till now.

String theory predict an omniverse where more than one universe exist with the existence of different timelines as compare to others. Simply we can say that string theory works under multiverse and not under universe.

String theory is totally based on hypothesis and mathematical calculations hence scientists predict that our thinking also effect the strings to interact with each other. According to a predictions, everything we think in our daily life or we can think in our life is must happening in some universe of multiverse because string interactions makes it possible in different universe in different timelines.

This theory is not the most acceptable theory amongst all but still many scientists believe that this theory can answer all of our questions in future.

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