5 May 2019

Total mars Missions did by humans till now!

Missions that uncovered the hidden facts of the Mars!

After realising, that Venus shouldn’t be suitable for life due to it’s very high temperature, we start looking towards the planet Mars.

From then the research on Mars continues and from 1960 we are sending probes, spacecrafts, and landers continuously. There are 57 missions that had been executed since 1960 but we had got success in just 26 among them.
That means 30 of them never left the Earth or got failed. United State should proud for it because, among 26 missions 19 were executed by US .

This space race started in October 1960, when Soviet Union launched  it’s two spacecrafts 1M NO.1 on October 10 and 1M NO.2 on October 14, but both missions got failed.

Again, after interval of two years Soviet Union launched three mission in 1962. Spacecrafts 2MV-4 No.1, 2MV-4 No.2 and 2MV-3 No.1 were launched on October 24, November 1 and November 4 respectively. But, unfortunately all of them failed.

NASA was late but not far from success in this space race. In 1964 NASA came with two flyby missions, Mariner 3 and Mariner 4 . This time it was a great achievement for NASA because for the first time in the history any Mars mission was completed successfully and this was Mariner 4. Whereas Mariner 3 failed. Also Soviet Union sent Zond 2 in respective year but again Union failed.

In 1969, NASA and Soviet Union both organised two missions both NASA launched Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 where both were successful. Whereas Soviet union’s 2M No.521 and 2M No.522, again both failed.

1971 was a year when maximum number of missions were conducted. In total 8 mission, Soviet Union conducted 6 missions in which only two were successful and both of them were orbiters. As here only 2 in 6 was successful but it was really great achievement for Soviet Union because, after 10 failure missions it was there very first success. And on Mars 3 lander became very first lander to land successfully on mars. But it lost it’s connection just after 14.5 seconds of landing and that’s why considered as partial failure mission.

Whereas NASA sent two spacecrafts in year 1971 and among them only one was successful and again this was orbiter.

Soviet Union took four attempts in 1973 with Mars 4, Mars 5, Mars 6 and Mars 7 missions. Among four, two of them were orbiters and another two were lander flyby. But unfortunately all of them again failed.

In 1975, NASA come with four mars missions among them two were lander Viking 1 lander and Viking 2 lander and another two were orbiters Viking 1 orbiter and Viking 2 orbiter and for the very first  time  all four were successful and this was NASA's great achievement.

After wait of 15 years, in 1988 Soviet Union comes with Phobos 1 and Phobos 2, orbiter with lander. Among them Phobos 1 get failed and also the lander of Phobos 2 was also failed but its orbiter worked successfully and that’s the reason Phobos 2 mission is known as partial failure mission.

NASA did another three successful mission in 1996 among  them one was orbiter which was orbiter named Mars Global Surveyor and was operated for seven years. Another was lander  and third one was a rover and this mission was named as Sojourner and this was very first rover on another planet.

 In 1996 Rosaviakosmos Russia also organised Mars 96 mission but unfortunately it failed.

In 1998 ISAS Japan did its first mission Nozomi, this the fuel of this spacecraft ruined out before it reached in  orbit and got failed.
NASA also conducted a mission in 1998 called Mars Climate Orbiter but this one burnt out in  atmosphere while fixing in orbit due to miss conversation error.

NASA conducted Deep space 2 in 199 but it failed,and again in 2001 NASA sent Mars Odyssey which is expected to remain operational unit until 2025.

ESA Europe participate in mars mission in 2003 with mission Mars Express and in very first attempt and still has enough fuel to remain as operational unit till 2026. Along with it ESA sent Beagle 2 but it failed.
In 2003 NASA also did two successful missions Spirit and Opportunity and these both were Rover and both were successful.

In 2004 ESA sent Roseeta successfully which was a Gravity assist.

In 2005, NASA again sent Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter successfully and still under operation. Again in 2007, NASA sent Phoenix which was lander and Dawn which was gravity assist and  were successful.

In 2011, Roskosomos Russia did failure mission,, Fobos-Grunt.  China for the very first time sent Yinghuo-1 but started it’s mars with failure. But this year NASA sent Curiosity rover successfully and this rover helped very much to know about Mars.

In 2013, for the very first time ISRO India entered into this race with Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan), and in the very first attempt ISRO India did it successfully and this mission will be continued till 2020.
In 2016, ESA/Roscosmos/Europe/Russia combinly send ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter which was a successful mission.

In the same year EAS Europe again did a failure mission.
On May 2018, NASA sent InSight& MarCO which is lander and two Cubesats flyby which is under operation.
And many more countries are preparing  for further mars missions and hope complete it successfully.

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