24 Jun 2019

Does this "waterworld" will have life?

Does "waterworld" will have life?


Today we have numerous eyes in outer space to make discoveries, of course they are space telescopes. They helped us to discover many galaxies stars and planets present at very large distance.

This strange planet is named as Gj1214b orbiting its red dwarf star Gj1214 which is 45 light years away from our sun in Ophiuchus constellation.

Gj1214b was detected under Mearth program. The aim of this program is to find those small planets orbiting their host star, diminishing the light of its host star to some percentage.

During discovery of Gj1214b astronomers got that the light coming from star Gj1214 is getting dim upto 1.5% in every 1.58 days. After calculation of radial velocity of object with respect to star and some other researches astronomers concluded that, the object is nothing but a planet.

The planet is categorises under the criteria of super earth planet which is bigger than our earth but smaller than gas giants of our solar system. The radius of the planet is calculated by observation of the amount of dimming light of the host star of the planet. Detecting the mass of any planet is not a easy task but astronomers do this work by applying their knowledge and hard working skills.

In case of Gj1214b astronomers detect its mass and density by sensitive observation of Gj1214's radial velocity which become measured through small shift in stellar spectral line due to Doppler's effect.

By comparing observed spectrum before and during transit of the planet the spectrum of the planetary atmosphere can be inferred. In 2010 an article was published in which spectacular was showing the wavelength of 750 to 1000 nm.

The predictions are, there is a atmosphere on Gj1214b which is rich in hydrogen and only formed by water vapour.
But astronomers are still not able to detect any clear sign of water vapour in the atmosphere.

Because of the old age of the planetary system astronomers thinks, if there atmosphere on Gj1214b then it will not primordial. There is greater variation in temperature of the planet is visible upto 120- 280°C.

Different studies say different think about this planet, some say that the planet has a rocky surface and a hydrogen rich dense atmosphere, where some say this planet is totally covered with water only hence Gj1214b is also known as waterworld. If it comes to out to waterworld then we can say that this planet is the hotter version of Jupiter's moon Europa.

Till now, no scientist has confirmed that Gj1214b will come as a waterworld and if it really happens than it will be a planet with water core surrounded by more water and 1:3 will be the ratio of rock and water. One mentionable thing is, if the planet comes out as a water world then there are some chances that some microbial life or any evolved form of life present in that water.

A paradox in quantum mechanics which proved Einstein wrong !

A paradox in quantum mechanics which proved Einstein wrong !


Neil Bohr and Max Plank are known as father of quantum theory where Albert Einstein propose quantum theory of light.

Today most of the scientists are convinced with quantum theory, after all the predictions done by quantum theory comes out to be true. When quantum theory was proposed in the scientist community, then at that time most of the scientists were not looking convinced with it because of its weird predictions.

Albert Einstein was one of them, to prove quantum theory wrong. Einstein done a thought experiment with his two friends P podolsky and N Rosen. The thought experiment was named as EPR paradox. This experiment give birth to a weird phenomenon named as quantum entanglement.

At the time, when this experiment had been done by Einstein and his team, sufficient equipment’s were not available. That's why they decided to make a thought experiment and because of this, they did not conclude anything experimentally.

After some years, when the sufficient equipment’s were development, then scientists re-test that but this time practically and the conclusion came out was totally against Einstein and his team.
The conclusion tells us that the quantum theory was exactly correct.

In 1920s, two of the greatest scientists were arguing about the fixed reality and superposition state. They were Einstein and Bohr.

According to Einstein, our reality is fixed and it doesn't matter we are observing it or not its state will not change. According to Neil Bohr, the state of anything is not fixed, until we do not observe an particle, it is present in every possible state known as superposition state.

In the superposition state, physical nature of reality does not make any sense. When we observe the quantum particles then their wave function collapsed and one of the possible state comes out. This theory was not capable to satisfy Einstein as he said this theory is incomplete and there should be some local hidden variables present so we can use them to predict everything instead of using wave function.

For proving Bohr's theory wrong Einstein done the experiment "EPR paradox". Word paradox is aligned with it because in the experiment it looks like the information between two particles are travelling more than the speed of light and the phenomenon is termed as quantum entanglement.

The phenomenon of quantum entanglement uses entangled particles. This is a stage of a particle in which quantum particles only exist in combined state so we can't predict state of any one particle without knowing the state of both the particles.

 According to EPR paradox or quantum entanglement, if we have two entangled particles and we have the right information about the state of one of them then we can easily predict the state of other particle.

Here distance between two entangled particles does not matter, means if one particle is present at one end of universe and other particle is present at other end still in this case information will transfer simultaneously. If one particle change its state than the other particle also change its state simultaneously.

Hence we can say that information between two entangled particles travel many times the speed of light and this is the reason why Einstein add word paradox in EPR experiment.


17 Jun 2019

"James Webb space Telescope" 100 times more powerful than the Hubble Telescope!

"James Webb space Telescope" is going to be 100 times more powerful than the Hubble Telescope!

james webb space telescope


Hubble telescope is one of the best instrument made by human ever.
Hubble answers some of the most tricky questions of human like, how universe looks like in its starting phase, what’s the real age of universe,  are there Earth like planets present in the universe and many questions like these.

Human curiosity never dies hence we are still remain with some questions like, how the first star or the Galaxy of universe looks like? what's the reason behind the origin of universe? what is the dark matter and dark energy? 


We are expecting James Webb space Telescope to answer these questions and replace the Hubble telescope. The James Webb Space Telescope is improved version of Hubble telescope as it provides greater resolution and sensitivity over Hubble telescope.

Hubble, a telescope launched in 1990 gets quite old and its time for its replacement. And the good thing is, its successor is ready to replace it.
The primary task of James Webb space Telescope is to find and study the firstly formed celestial bodies in the universe so we will able to reveal the new fact related to universe.


James Webb space Telescope will help us to take direct image of Exoplanets and galaxies situated far from us. The primary mirror of James Webb space Telescope is made of gold plated beryllium. Its primary mirror is made up of 18 hexagonal primary segments whose total diameter is 6.5 meters where Hubble's primary mirror's diameter is 2.4 metres, hence it is far advanced from Hubble space telescope.


Scientists are predicting that this telescope is going to be 100 times more powerful than Hubble telescope.
Hubble space telescope is only able to detect nearby ultraviolet--infra-red spectra where James Webb Space Telescope is able to detect as well as blur red-shifted objects.

These are some comparisons between JWST and Hubble telescope but scientists have to face a big challenge during using JWST because it is necessary to keep it cool because, it may happen that it can process wrong information due to heat of infra-red radiation capture by itself.

To avoid this problem scientists have designed its primary mirror and other four important instruments with silicon and aluminium coated plates and these sheets have capacity to keep those instruments cool up to -220°c .


Actually NASA is preparing JWST with the help of Canadian and European space agency.
JWST is named on the name American government official who plays an significant role in Apollo programme, James E Webb.

The process of making of JWST had started in 1996 but due to financial problems, the NASA have to stop it many times. Now NASA has increased the schedule launch timing of JWST to 2021.


Lets explore the instruments of JWST one by one:


1. NEAR INFRA-RED CAMERA ( NIRcam): the spectral coverage of this instrument is 0.6 micrometre to 5 micrometre. This instrument is prepared under university of Arizona. This instrument will used in nearby wave found sensing.


2. NEAR INFRA-RED SPECTROGRAPH (NIRspac):
This instrument will only work on the wavelength at which NIRcam will based on. This instrument will also work on low resolution mode and two other mode. The main aim of this instrument is to capture wide range images, simply we can say that is instrument can make the simulation of many individual objects.


3. MADE INFRA-RED INSTRUMENT (MIRI): this instrument will work on 5 to 27 wavelength of made infra-red radiation. The temperature of this instrument shouldn't be more than 6 kelvin, this instrument will work on extreme temperature.


Scientists are designing JWST to achieve mainly four primary goals: 


1. To detect the light coming from first stars or galaxies formed after big bang to make an idea about the universe just after big bang.
2. To study the formation and evolution of galaxies.
3. To understand the formation of stars and planetary systems ,
4. To study planetary systems to find the origin of life in this universe.

These goals can be achieved if the telescope have the ability to detect near infra-red light rather than having a capacity to detect the light of visible spectrum. For achieving this goal scientists designed this telescope not only to detect visible light like Hubble telescope but this one is design to perform infra-red astronomy.

JWST will help to detect the dim light coming from the stars to study the stars in better way, for example, star KIC 8462852, a star which was discovered in 2015 showing a very strange light-curve property and scientists are hoping that JWST will help them a lot in study of stars like this.

NASA has postponed the launch of JWST to 30 march 2021 on an Ariane 5 rocket and it will located near the second Lagrange point of the earth-sun system which is 1,500,000 kilometres from earth, directly opposite to the sun.

Scientists are expecting this telescope to do lots of surprising discoveries which can help humanity to understand this universe better than we are doing today.

"HD 106906" the most weired star system ever found!

"HD 106906" the most weired star system ever found!

HD 106906 b



All the stars system follows the same star formation model. But in this very big universe some time astronomer finds some stars, planets or sometime black holes also that are found to be totally different from that we knows about. And these celestial bodies challenges our knowledge and questions our understanding and their existence.

Planet HD 106906 b is among of those mysterious celestial bodies which questions our understanding and their existence.

HD 106906 b is a weird planet which revolves around a binary star system HD 106906.
Observation of HD 106906 was started in 2005, using Magellan Telescope at Campanas Observatory in Atacama desert of Chile.

After 8 years of observation something was found that was affecting the luminosity of the star. After further observations, a planet 11 times massive  than the Jupiter found and was named HD 106906 b.

HD 106906 b was very important  for scientists because of its weird characteristics.

As per star formation model, in a binary star system the mass ratio between two stars should not be more than 10-to-1 but in the case of HD 106906 this mass ratio is 140-to-1 which is not according to star formation model.

Another fact that makes it interesting is that, it also does not  follows planet formation model because of the HD 106906 b. According to planet formation model it is not possible for a planet to form so far from its star as HD 106906 b is.

This planet is present 738 AU (110 billion kms) from its star.

Observers says that they have not found any celestial object after 35 AU from the binary star system. And this information makes another prospective, that planet HD 106906 b really belongs to binary star system HD 106906 or not!

Its not over here, there are more facts that makes HD 106906 star system different and interesting!!

Based on star luminosity and temperature the estimated age of star system HD 106906 is about 13±2 years. But still it has Debris ring is expanded from the distance of 65 AU(10billion KMs) to its inner edge from binary system and up to the 120 to 550 AU( 18 to 82 billion KMs) to its outer edge from binary stars.
And this is really weird to having debris ring present still after 13 million years of star formation.
According to general planetary model, temperature of the planet is respective to its distance from its star. As in our solar system, Mercury and Venus are closest to the Sun so are the hottest planet of the solar system, then comes Earth which have moderate temperature where water exists in liquid state and that’s why  it supports life.

Then comes farther planets like Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune which are colder planets and the Neptune and Uranus have lowest temperature among the planets.

So, according to this all detailed observations and planetary theory HD 106906 b should have very low temperature as it is present very far (738 AU)  from its star. But apart from that all, temperature of planet HD 106906 b is 1,800 K(1,500℃) which is really weird but this is explained as, the reason of being so hot is its age which as just 13 million year old and in comparison to the Earth which is 4.5 billion years old.

To being so hot, luminosity of this planet is 0.02% that of the Sun.


For now, researchers are giving different theories about existence of HD 106906 b, and one of which says that this planet is not in the gravitational pull of star HD 106906, and seen along our line of sight just by chance.
But Its not the end, the research on HD 106906 star system will be continued in the future.

9 Jun 2019

"Hubble Telescope" our first eye in the space!

"Hubble Telescope" our first eye in the space!

Hubble Telescope

From centuries human are curious about the universe, they observe the sky from there naked eyes, make patterns with the stars that we called now them constellation and give theories on their perceptions, but their all observations was done without any instrument.

But in year 1610 an Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei  changed the way of observing and understanding the space with his first ever telescope. And that for the first time we knew about the planets and their moons and knew about the ring of Saturn and the Jupiter has also moons.

Because of Galileo Galilei and his telescope we knew that the milky way is made up of collection of countless stars and not are the gas clouds. Within few years the thinking about the space and universe totally changed.

In the centuries followed, telescopes grew in size and complexity and become more powerful, advanced and become more capable for observing very far space. And now telescopes are placed far from city light and placed as far from haze as possible.

In 1920, Edwin Hubble again amazed the world from his largest telescope of that time which was capable to observe other galaxies beyond our own. His Observatory was at Mt. Wilson near Pasadena, California.


With the time modification and advancement of telescope continues. And the year 1990 amazed the world due to the advancement in telescope. And this time the telescope was very different because it was the first telescope in the history of space science which was to be placed in space.

And this telescope was named as Hubble Telescope and was named after American astronomer Edwin Hubble .


Hubble Observatory was launched and deployment in April 1990, at the altitude of 340 miles in low earth orbit, very far form cloud, haze, rain and light pollution to have an unobstructed view of Universe.


Hubble Telescope is 43.5 feet (13.2m) in length with having 14 feet (4.2m) of maximum diameter. It’s sensitivity to light is from Ultraviolet to Infrared (115 – 2500 nanometres).

Hubble is able to lock on to target without deviating more than 7/1000th of an arcsecond or,  can see width of human hair at the distance of 1 mile. Due to having so steady and accurate Hubble takes images of distant, faint objects.

This Observatory completes it’s one orbit in every 95 minutes with speed of 17,000 mph in low earth orbit at the altitude of 340 miles (547 km), and is inclined 28.5 degrees to the equator.

What is the power source of Hubble Telescope?


Well, the full mission time of Hubble Observatory is about of 29 years and for such missions the only energy source should be Sun. So, the Hubble has two 25-feet long solar panels which generates 5,500 watt of energy in sunlight and of which 2,100 watt of power is used. Although it has 6 Nickel Hydrogen (NiH) batteries for power storage whose capacity is equal to about 22 average car batteries.

What Hubble Telescope has did till now ?


Since its mission began in 1990, Hubble Telescope has made more than 1.3 million observations till now.
Astronomers using Hubble data have published more than 15,000 scientific papers and those papers have been cited other papers 738,00 times. And this makes Hubble one of the most productive scientific instrument ever built.

Hubble transmits about 150 gigabytes of raw science data every week and generates about 10 terabytes of data per year. And till now from 1990, it had collected total data which is over 150 TB in size.

In the development of Astronomy and space science there is big hand of discoveries made by Hubble.

Among million of observation and thousand of discoveries there are few such discoveries that are very much important. These discoveries are like, The age of universe which Hubble had founded approximately 13.8 billion years ; The Expansion of Universe and in this discovery it is found that the universe is actually accelerating instead what the imagined and this discovery won the Nobel prize.


Hubble had discovered black holes in many galaxies and had helped in finding the mass and size of milkyway galaxy.

Hubble Telescope had also contributed in Solar system with discoveries like finding dwarf planets, Pluto and Eris. And also had discovered surface ocean on Jupiter’s moon Ganymede and had discovered fifth moon of Pluto.


In this long journey, Hubble had faced equipment failure, equipment damage and new instruments had added several times and all that was completed by further missions named Servicing Mission 1 (In January 1994), Servicing Mission 2 (In February 1997), Servicing Mission 3A (In December 1999), Servicing Mission 3B (In March 2002), and Servicing Mission 4 (In February 2005) was last one.


Mission time of Hubble Telescope is about 29 years which was launched in 1990 and according to astronomers this first space Observatory is going to decay between 2030 to 2040 and that will be the end of story of Hubble Telescope.

2 Jun 2019

WARP DRIVE, a technology to travel faster than the light!

WARP DRIVE, a technology to travel faster than the light!


Wrap drive
TODAY, to travel faster than the light is only mathematically proved way to cover distances between different galaxies or such a huge distance .

Yes, it is impossible according to Einstein's general theory of relativity as it says, no body which have mass can travel faster than the speed of light. Today scientists of all over the world believe in this theory that's why they are searching way through which we can cover large distance in very small time period without violating general theory of relativity.

Today we have an idea about the space and its behaviour and we know that Einstein's relativity works on every body in the universe, but not on universe itself. That’s the reason why's scientists say about the expansion of space.

We admit that the universe is created about 14 billion years ago with big bang and if we assume that after big bang universe expands with the speed of light then it's diameter shouldn't be more than 28 billion light years, but according to physicists, the actual diameter of universe is 93 billion light years. That means space can expand and contract with the speed of light.

And this gives us an idea that instead of making a spaceship which can match the speed of light we should make any technology which can expand and contract the space.

If we contract the space in front of a spaceship and expand the space of behind the spaceships then without travelling anywhere, spaceship will cover a huge distance just in a fraction of time. And this technology is known as Warp drive.

For understanding this we have to know about the nature of space. We can't understand space without time because according to Einstein, Space-time is not two different things. If we try to understand then we should know that we measure anything in space with length, breadth and depth/height and if we take time as a fourth dimension then this will be a true model of space-time.

According to Einstein, space does not exist without time and time do not exist without space. So here we need to bend space which is not an easy and also not impossible task. But, with today’s technology it is not possible because, only the body with enormous mass can bend the fabric of space-time and we cannot produce such a mass with today’s technology.

Now, we have an idea about how space-time behaves so now we can understand, how Warp drive works? 


For making this technique possible, we have to expand the space present behind the spaceship and contract the space present in front of the spaceship and by doing this our spaceship will travel a huge distance with more than the speed of light and actually without moving.

By following this technique, we don't have to face any problem because of a phenomenon known as time dilation because in this technique, the spaceship is at rest throughout the journey.

Now we know how warp drive works but the question is, is this possible (compressing and expanding the space)? 


Actually yes, Because we knew that the objects with high mass can compress the space but for doing this we need mass nearly equal to Saturn but this is not the actual problem.

Actual problem with this is, how we can expand space-time?


 For doing this we need negative mass. This is a concept of body which have negative means, this mass will behave against the gravity. We can get this mass in quantum level, but for making warp drive possible we need enormous amount of negative mass which we haven't found yet.


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What is dark matter and dark energy?

What is dark matter and dark energy?


Before 1998, one thing about expansion of universe was certain that the rate of expansion of universe is slowing down with the time, due to the gravitational force exerted by the universe. But, it depends on the energy density weather the universe will recollapse or remain expanding, whatever happens but the deceleration of universe is definite. Although the slowing down of universe was not been observed till the time, but it was theoretically fixed.

Then comes 1998, when Hubble Space Telescope observed very distant supernova, which showed that the universe is actually accelerating instead of slowing down, which was theoretically not possible. But, something was making it possible.

Maybe there should some kind of energy-fluid filling the space. Eventually, scientists still don’t knew the correct explanation about this energy-fluid but they named this solution as dark energy.

Now the question is, what actually the dark energy is?
It should be right to say more is unknown than is known. But we know how much dark matter is because we know how much it affects the universe's expansion.
Dark energy is roughly 68% and dark matter is 27% while normal matter is just 5% in this universe.

As we haven’t observed dark energy yet, so only we have explanations in the name of information. So, there is lot of explanations about it , which is given by different scientists.

One explanation says that it is a property of space. Albert Einstein was the first who realized that the space is not actually empty. The space has different amazing properties and one of them was discovered by Einstein, that it is possible for more space to came into existence.

Then comes another version of Einstein’s gravity theory, that contains cosmological constant which predicts that empty space posses its own energy. Because it is the property of space itself, that’s why this energy doesn’t dilutes with the expanding space.

As more space came into existence, more of this energy of space would appear, and as a result this energy would cause the universe to expand faster and more faster.

Another explanation about dark energy tells that dark energy is a different kind of dynamic fluid or field. Something that fills the universe but something whose effect on expansion of universe is opposite to normal matter.

Some theorist named it ‘quintessence’, but if quintessence is the answer, still we don’t know what it  is, with what it interact with and why does it exists. Mystery still continues.

Another explanation says that the space is full of temporary particles that continuously forms and disappears. When scientists tried to calculated the energy then the answer comes too much wrong.

Possibilities about dark energy are  :- this is the property of space, or a dynamic fluid or we needs new theory of gravity.


We talk a lot about dark energy, now lets know about dark matter.


According to theoretical model, dark matter consist of about 27%of total universe. Firstly dark matter should not be present in the form of planet or star, it must be present as very small particles. Another thing that it is not present in the form of dark clouds of normal matter.

As the normal matter is made up of particles called baryons and baryon is detectable due it absorbs radiation passing through so possibly dark matter is non-baryonic in nature. And it is not even possible that dark matter could be antimatter because antimatter on interaction with matter emits different gamma rays that not detected even now.

Does there is any possibility that there should be nothing like dark matter or dark energy?


There are some evidences that may prove this all.
First evidence about dark matter is that according to calculations there are many galaxies that would fly instead they are moving or rotating or formed, if they did not contain large amount of unseen matter.
Other evidences is about observations of gravitational lensing and this all is enough to show the existence of dark matter and dark energy.
Hope the mystery of dark matter should solved in future.


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