9 Jun 2019

"Hubble Telescope" our first eye in the space!

"Hubble Telescope" our first eye in the space!

Hubble Telescope

From centuries human are curious about the universe, they observe the sky from there naked eyes, make patterns with the stars that we called now them constellation and give theories on their perceptions, but their all observations was done without any instrument.

But in year 1610 an Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei  changed the way of observing and understanding the space with his first ever telescope. And that for the first time we knew about the planets and their moons and knew about the ring of Saturn and the Jupiter has also moons.

Because of Galileo Galilei and his telescope we knew that the milky way is made up of collection of countless stars and not are the gas clouds. Within few years the thinking about the space and universe totally changed.

In the centuries followed, telescopes grew in size and complexity and become more powerful, advanced and become more capable for observing very far space. And now telescopes are placed far from city light and placed as far from haze as possible.

In 1920, Edwin Hubble again amazed the world from his largest telescope of that time which was capable to observe other galaxies beyond our own. His Observatory was at Mt. Wilson near Pasadena, California.

With the time modification and advancement of telescope continues. And the year 1990 amazed the world due to the advancement in telescope. And this time the telescope was very different because it was the first telescope in the history of space science which was to be placed in space.

And this telescope was named as Hubble Telescope and was named after American astronomer Edwin Hubble .

Hubble Observatory was launched and deployment in April 1990, at the altitude of 340 miles in low earth orbit, very far form cloud, haze, rain and light pollution to have an unobstructed view of Universe.

Hubble Telescope is 43.5 feet (13.2m) in length with having 14 feet (4.2m) of maximum diameter. It’s sensitivity to light is from Ultraviolet to Infrared (115 – 2500 nanometres).

Hubble is able to lock on to target without deviating more than 7/1000th of an arcsecond or,  can see width of human hair at the distance of 1 mile. Due to having so steady and accurate Hubble takes images of distant, faint objects.

This Observatory completes it’s one orbit in every 95 minutes with speed of 17,000 mph in low earth orbit at the altitude of 340 miles (547 km), and is inclined 28.5 degrees to the equator.

What is the power source of Hubble Telescope?

Well, the full mission time of Hubble Observatory is about of 29 years and for such missions the only energy source should be Sun. So, the Hubble has two 25-feet long solar panels which generates 5,500 watt of energy in sunlight and of which 2,100 watt of power is used. Although it has 6 Nickel Hydrogen (NiH) batteries for power storage whose capacity is equal to about 22 average car batteries.

What Hubble Telescope has did till now ?

Since its mission began in 1990, Hubble Telescope has made more than 1.3 million observations till now.
Astronomers using Hubble data have published more than 15,000 scientific papers and those papers have been cited other papers 738,00 times. And this makes Hubble one of the most productive scientific instrument ever built.

Hubble transmits about 150 gigabytes of raw science data every week and generates about 10 terabytes of data per year. And till now from 1990, it had collected total data which is over 150 TB in size.

In the development of Astronomy and space science there is big hand of discoveries made by Hubble.

Among million of observation and thousand of discoveries there are few such discoveries that are very much important. These discoveries are like, The age of universe which Hubble had founded approximately 13.8 billion years ; The Expansion of Universe and in this discovery it is found that the universe is actually accelerating instead what the imagined and this discovery won the Nobel prize.

Hubble had discovered black holes in many galaxies and had helped in finding the mass and size of milkyway galaxy.

Hubble Telescope had also contributed in Solar system with discoveries like finding dwarf planets, Pluto and Eris. And also had discovered surface ocean on Jupiter’s moon Ganymede and had discovered fifth moon of Pluto.

In this long journey, Hubble had faced equipment failure, equipment damage and new instruments had added several times and all that was completed by further missions named Servicing Mission 1 (In January 1994), Servicing Mission 2 (In February 1997), Servicing Mission 3A (In December 1999), Servicing Mission 3B (In March 2002), and Servicing Mission 4 (In February 2005) was last one.

Mission time of Hubble Telescope is about 29 years which was launched in 1990 and according to astronomers this first space Observatory is going to decay between 2030 to 2040 and that will be the end of story of Hubble Telescope.

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