22 Jul 2019

Chandrayaan 2: Full mission report

Chandrayaan 2: Full mission report

Chandrayaan 2

India has successfully launched it’s second lunar exploration missions named Chandrayaan 2, which is the successor of one of the most successful lunar mission Chandrayaan 1.

Chandrayaan 1 was the 1st to discover the presence of water molecules on the moons surface and was operated for almost 1 year successfully.
Apart from it, it had found preserved lava tube that may provide site for future human habitation. And there are many more success story of chandrayan 1.

Chandrayaan 2 mission is conducted by Indian space agency ISRO and has been launched on 22 July 2019, at 14:43 IST using GSLV MK III rocket from Satish Dhawan space centre located at Sriharikota at Andhra Pradesh. 

Earlier it as be launched on 15 July 2019, at 02:51 IST (15 July 2109 ,at 21:21 UTC), but due to some technical issues the launch was cancelled few minutes before the launch time but this time Chandrayaan 2 has been launched successfully.

Total journey time of Chandrayaan 2 will be of 48 days. Chandrayaan 2 will first orbit the Earth for 17 days, then the Chandrayaan will be separated. It will take 5 days to reach in Moon’s orbit after escaping from Earths orbit. After entering the Moon’s orbit it will orbit it for 28 days and finally will land on Moon’s surface.

With successful landing Chandrayaan 2 will become the 1st lunar mission to land near the south Pole of the moon and 4th country to achieve a soft landing on the moon after USA, USSR and China.

Chandrayaan 2 has a lunar orbiter, a lander and a rover. Chandrayaan 2 will attempt a soft landing of rover and lander at the latitude of 70°south in a high plane between two creators,  Manzinus C and Simpelus C.

Moon has the undisturbed record of the nascent solar system environment, so it will be helpful to know the solar system from different way. While there are some models explaining origin of moon and solar system exists but that all needs explanation.

Extensive mapping of moon surface will help us know about different composition on moon and will probably give important piece of information for trace the origin and evolution of the moon.

It has also objective of finding evidence of presence of water molecule on moon which was found by Chandrayaan 1 and the extent of its distribution on lunar surface and subsurface.

Lunar south pole is so important and intresting because, most of its past is completely and permanently covered under shadow and this makes the possibility of presence of water. And also the south pole has craters that are cold traps, containing fossilised record  of the early solar system.

Chandrayaan 2 has total 13 payloads, in which orbiter has 8 payloads, lander has 3 while rover has 2 payloads.

Chandrayaan 2- Orbiter

At the time of launch, the Chandrayaan-2 Orbiter will be capable of communicating with Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) at Byalalu, Karnataka as well as the lander Vikram. The mission life of the Orbiter is one year and it will be placed in a 100X100 km lunar polar orbit. Orbiter weights 2,379 kg.

Orbiter’s payloads include:-

1. Terrain mapping camera will make digital elevation model of whole Moon;
2. Large area soft x-ray spectrometer will examine the composition of surface of the Moon;

3. Solar x-ray monitor will provide the input of solar x-ray spectrum;
4. Imaging IR spectrometer will find the evidence of presence of ice and minerals;

5. Orbiter will examine the polar region of moon for finding the evidence of ice under the surface;
6. Atmospheric composition explorer-2 will study the environment of Moon;

7. Orbiter high resolution camera will take pictures of the surface the Moon; and
8. Its dual frequency radio science experiment will study the Ionosphere of the Moon.

Chandrayaan 2 Lander – Vikram

The lander of Chandrayaan-2 is named Vikram after Dr Vikram A Sarabhai, the father of the Indian space programme. It is designed to function for one lunar day.

Vikram has the capability to communicate with IDSN at Byalalu near Bengaluru, as well as with the Orbiter and Rover. The Lander is designed to execute a soft landing on the lunar surface. Lander weights 1,471 kg.

Lander's payload includes :-

1. Lander’s instrument for Lunar seismic activity will examine the earthquake movement on the sight;

2. Surface thermo- physical experiment will study the thermal conductivity of the moon; and
3. Langmuir probe will study the surface of the Moon.

Chandrayaan 2 Rover – Pragyan

Chandrayaan-2 rover is a six-wheeled robotic vehicle Pragyan can travel up to 500 metres and leverages solar energy for its functioning. It can only communicate with the Lander. Pragyan weights just 27 kg.

Rover's payload includes :-

1. Rover’s Alpha particle x-ray spectrometer will do detail analysis of Moon’s surface; and

2. Leaser induced breakdown spectroscope will test the surface composition of moon near the landing sight.

Chandrayaan-2 has several science payloads to expand the lunar scientific knowledge through detailed study of topography, seismography, mineral identification and distribution, surface chemical composition, thermo-physical characteristics of top soil and composition of the tenuous lunar atmosphere, leading to a new understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon.

The mission is scheduled to aboard Isro's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark-III. It will cost about Rs 987 crore roughly ($144 million). While China's  chang'e 4 costs Rs 5,759 crores ($836 million).

Isro's lander will attempt a "soft", controlled landing on the lunar surface after 48 days from the time of launch.

After Chandrayaan 2 ISRO is going to plann it's own Space Station. And it will be more advanced than International space station.

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