26 Aug 2019

You should have idea about this magical theory!

Quantum field theory : Fundamental and History

Quantum field theory

Quantum field theory:- a field theory that obeys the principles of quantum theory.

String theory could be starting point for theory of everything which would define all of our universe's physical laws in one simple mathematical formula.

Read: what is string theory.


Quantum field theory

* All the matter in universe consist of vibrations of this strings.
* All physical theories are expressed in language of mathematics.

* String theory is a quantum field theory that describes the particles and forces in our universe based on the way that special extra dimensions.

Within the theory are wrapped up into a very small size (a processor called compactification).

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The String Theory!


This is the power of string theory to use the fundamental strings and way extra dimensions are compactified to prove a geometric description of all the particles and forces known to modern physics.

Among the forces needed to be described is of course, gravity because string theory is a quantum field theory which means that string theory is a theory of gravity and this special gravity is known as quantum gravity.

The established theory of gravity, general relativity, has a fluid dynamic space time and one aspect of string theory that's still beings on is getting this sort of a space time emerge out of the theory.

String theory uses no experiments that provides new insights, but it has revealed profound mathematical relationship within the equations, which led physicists to believe that it must be true.

A quick look at where string theory has been based. 
          
String theory was originally derived in 1962 as a theory that attempted to explore the behaviour of hadrons (such as protons and neutrons) inside particle accelerator. It was abandoned because it requires a large no of extra unseen dimensions.

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It rise again when physicists were able to prove it as a mathematical consistent theory.

In mid-1990s, string theory was updated to become most complex theory known M theory. This contains more objects than just strings.
This new objects were called branes and they could have anywhere from 0 to 9D. The earlier string theory were seems approximation to the more complete M theory.

Key ideas:-

* String theory predicts that all objects in our universe are composed of vibrating filaments of energy.
* String theory attempts to reconcile general relativity (gravity) with its quantum ideas.
* String theory provides a way to unify all the four fundamental forces of universe.

* String theory predicts a new connection (called super symmetry) between two fundamentally different types of particles, Bozons and Fermions.
* String theory predicts a number of extra (usually unobservable) dimensions in the universe.

In 1970s, the filaments of energy in strings were considered as unidimesional object. These strings came in two forms, closed strings and open strings.

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An open end has string that don't touch each other, while a closed string is a loop with no open end. It was eventually found that these early strings are called Type 1 strings, could go through five basic type of interactions as shown below:-

Quantum field theory


The interactions are based on strings ability to have ends join and split apart because the ends of open strings can join to form closed strings. You can't imagine a string theory without closed strings.
Closed strings can describe gravity. It can explain behaviour of particles.


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